Non-Experimental Research Methods Flashcards Preview

AQA Psychology AS > Non-Experimental Research Methods > Flashcards

Flashcards in Non-Experimental Research Methods Deck (37)
Loading flashcards...
1

Define 'naturalistic observation'

Observation of behaviour in a natural situation

2

Define 'controlled observation'

An observation where some of the variables are controlled by the researcher, reducing the natural-ness. These are usually conducted in a lab.

3

Identify the strengths and weakness of naturalistic observation

Pros:
-No Demand Characteristics
-High Ecological Validity

Cons:
-Difficult to replicate
-Observer's presence may affect behaviour

4

What is the difference between structured and unstructured observation?

Unstructured; the researcher records all relevant behaviour but has no 'system'. Usually when behaviour to be studied is unpredictable

Structured; the researcher uses various systems:
-Research aims (an area to study)
-Observational systems (how to record the behaviour)

5

Define 'operationalisation'

Breaking the behaviour being studied into a set of measurable components

6

Define 'continuous' observation'

Where every instance of behaviour you see is recorded in detail

7

Define 'event sampling' and state on strength and weakness

Recording each time an event occurs

Pro:
Con: May be difficult to record everything accurately

8

Define 'time sampling' and state on strength and weakness

Recording behaviour is regular time intervals
(e.g. every other minute)

Pro:
Con: Some behaviours may be missed

9

What is the difference between participant and non-participant observation?

Participant; when the observer is involved in the research

Non-Participant; when the observer is not involved in the research

10

State the adavanages and disadvantages of Participant Observation

Pros:
-Living the experience
-Avoids researcher bias

Cons:
-Difficult to record
-Time consuming

11

State the adavanages and disadvantages of Non-Participant Observation

Pros:
-Easy to record
-Observer doesn't interfere

Cons:
-Demand Characterisics (potentially)

12

Define 'covert observation'

When participants are unaware of the observer

13

Define 'overt observation'

When participants are aware of the observer

14

State the adavantages and disadvantages of Covert Observation

Pros: Allows observer to witness behaviour which might otherwise not be seen
Cons: No participant consent

15

State the adavantages and disadvantages of Overt Observation

Pros: Participant's consent
Cons: Demand Characteristics

16

What kind of data does an unstructured observation produce?

Qualitiative Data

17

What kind of data does a structured observation produce?

Quantitative Data

18

How do observers assure that their research is reliable?

-Observation's results should be consistent
-Inter-observer reliability; correlating the observations of two or more observers

19

How do observers deal with low reliability within research?

Observers should be trained to use a behaviour checklist or coding system

20

Define the 'self-report technique'

A research method where participants give information about themselves without researcher interference

Usually in the form of questionnnaires or interviews

21

Outline the strengths of using a questionnaire as a form of self-report

-Easy to collect information from the masses
-No interviewer effects

22

Outline the weaknesses of using a questionnaire as a form of self-report

-Social Desirability Bias; not answering honestly
-Questions may be misunderstood

23

Define what is meant by 'a structured interview'

Contains pre-prepared questions (pretty much a face-to-face questionnaire)

24

Define what is meant by 'a semi-structured interview'

Consists of some prepared questions but allows for the interviewee to elaborate (most successful form of interview)

25

Define what is meant by 'a unstructured interview'

Consists of possibly one or two pre-prepared questions to start, but continues based on the responses of the interviewee

26

Outline the advantages of using an interview as a form of self-report compared to a questionnaire

-Body language can be recorded
-In unstructured interviews, the questions are specific and the interviewee is given an opportunity to expand

27

Outline the disadvantages of using an interview as a form of self-report compared to a questionnaire

-Interviewer effects
-Some people may struggle verbalising their thoughts

28

Outline the advantages and disadvantages of using a structured interview interview

Pros:
-Easily repeated
-Easier to analyse

Cons:
-Rigid and inflexible

29

Outline the advantages and disadvantages of using a unstructured or semi-structured interview

Pros:
-Fairly flexible

Cons:
-Interviewer bias
-Answers are less easy to analyse as they are unpredictable

30

What is the difference between a correlation and an experiment?

Correlation; seeks to establish the nature between two variables

Experiment; the difference between conditions and established cause and effect