Psychopathology (Unit 2) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Psychopathology (Unit 2) Deck (58)
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1

Define 'implicit norm'

Implicit, or unspoken, rules of social conduct

2

Define 'explicit norm'

Explicit rules in society about acceptable behaviours

3

Outline the limitations of the 'deviation from social norms' definition

-Social Control; relying on predominant cultures as normal
-Changes over time
-Eccentricity vs. abnormal behaviour
-Role of culture; cultural relativisim

4

Outline the strengths of the 'deviation from social norms' definition

-This way of defining abnormality takes account of the greater good
-Recognises the role of context

5

Name the measure used to assess the extent to which someone is functioning adequately

GAF (Global Assessment of Functioning Scale)

6

State and explain four of the characteristics identified in Rosenhan and Seligman's study (1989)

-Irrationality
-Observer Discomfort
-Unpredictability
-Maladaptive Behaviour

7

Outline the limitations of the 'failure to function adequately' definition

-Who judges what is 'adequate'?
-Inadequacy and Abnormality are different
-Highly functioning individuals

8

Outline the strengths of the 'failure to function adequately' definition

-Easy to judge
-GAF allows clinicians to judge the degree of abnormality

9

List Jahoda's six key criteria for mental health

Positive Attitudes
Self-Actualisation
Autonomy
Resisting Stress
Accurate Perception of Reality
Environmental Mastery

10

Outline the limitations of the 'deviation from ideal mental health' definition

-Difficulty reaching all six criteria (Jahoda)
-Some stress can be motivating
-Cultural Relativism; Autonomy

11

Outline the strengths of the 'deviation from ideal mental health' definition

-Positive approach
-Holistic approach; focuses on the whole person

12

Outline the limitations of the 'statistical infrequency' definition

-Not all abnormal behaviours are undesirable (hyperintelligence)
-Not all normal behaviours are desirable (depression)
-Cultural relativism; ADHD, depression are more recognised/reported in western cultures
-Only includes those who have been to see a professional (mostly women)

13

Outline the strengths of the 'statistical infrequency' definition

-Once a 'cut-off point' for normality to abnormality has been decided, it is an objective and easy measure to use
-Based on real data
-Statistical evidence to support patient's requests for help

14

Describe what is meant by 'DSM'

Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders

15

Describe what is meant by 'ICD'

International Classification of Diseases

16

Define 'agoraphobia'

Usually involves the fear of crowds and open spaces, commonly found in younger female adults

17

Outline the emotional characteristic of phobias

Avoidant/Anxiety response; high levels of anxiety when faced with feared objects/situations. Results in avoidant behaviour

Disruption of functioning; anxiety and avoidance responses interfere with everyday working and social functioning

18

Outline the behavioural characteristic of phobias

Persistant, excessive fear; high levels of anxiety due to presence or anticipation of feared object/situation

Fear from exposure to phobic stimulus; phobias produce immediate response, even panic attacks

19

Outline the cognitive characteristic of phobias

Recognition of exaggerated anxiety; phobics are generally aware that their fear is exaggerated

20

DEPRESSION:
Outline the characteristics of uni-polar depression

B: Loss of Energy, Weight Changes, Lack of Personal Hygiene

E: Loss of Enthusiasm, Constant Depression, Worthlessness

C: Delusions

21

DEPRESSION:
Outline the characteristics of bi-polar depression

B: High Energy Levels, Reckless Behaviour, Talkative

E: Elevated Mood States, Irritability, Lack of Guilt

C: Delusions, Irrational Thought Processes

22

OCD:
What category of disorder is OCD classed as in the DSM/ICD?

OCD is an anxiety disorder

23

OCD:
Name and define the two main components of OCD

Obsessions; thoughts, maybe innapropriate or irrational (e.g. thinking germs are everywhere)

Compulsions; intense and uncontrollable [urges] actions as a result of obsessions (e.g. constantly washing hands)

24

OCD:
Outline the characteristics of obsessions

B: Disruption of Functioning, Social Impairment

E: Extreme Anxiety

C: Reccurent/Persisant Thoughts, Recognition of Self-Generation and Irrationality

25

OCD:
Outline the characteristics of compulsions

B: Disruption of Functioning, Repetition, Social Impairment

E: Distress

C: Uncontrollable Urges, Realisation of Innapropriateness

26

Outline the case of Little Albert using Classical Conditoning

UCS (LOUD NOISE) - UCR (FEAR)

UCS (LOUD NOISE) + NS (WHITE RAT) - UCR (FEAR)

CS (WHITE RAT) - CR (FEAR)

27

Briefly describe the stages of Mowrer's Two-Process Model as an explanation of phobias

1. Initiation
Explains how the feeling of fear and the phobic object/situation are paired, using Classical Conditioning

2. Maintenance
Explains how phobias are reinforced and prolonged, using Operant Conditioning

28

Outline the explanation for the maintenance of phobias using Operant Condtioning

Positive Reinforcement; the attention generated by the fear increases the likelihood that it'll happen again

Negative Reinforcement; the avoidance of the phobic object/situation increases the likelihood to do it again

29

Evaluate the behavioural approach to explaining phobias (pros)

-Phobia treatment (e.g. SD and Flooding) use conditioning techniques based on behaviourist principles
-Little Albert study supports the CC and OC explanation of phobias

30

Evaluate the behavioural approach to explaining phobias (cons)

-Di Nardo et al; not all people who get bitten by dogs develop phobias
-Not all people with phobias of dogs have had a traumatic experience with dogs
-Biological Preparedness (Seligman); why we are afraid of things from our species' past, like dangerous animals and not new things like cars