Social Influence (Unit 1) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Social Influence (Unit 1) Deck (41)
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Outline and explain 'Compliance' as a type of conformity

-When individuals adjust their behaviour or opinion to a group publically
-Weak, or temporary form of conformity
-Dependent on the presence of the group


Outline and explain 'Identification' as a type of conformity

-Adjusting one's beliefs to befriend a group which are desirable
-Private AND public acceptance
-Temporary and dependent on the presence of the group


Outline and explain 'Internalisation' as a type of conformity

-Both public AND private adjustment
-Not dependent on the presence of the group


List the three types of conformity



Define 'Normative Social Influence'

-The desire to be accepted
-Relates the compliance type of conformity


Define 'Informational Social Influence'

-The desire to be correct
-One's view changes to be in line with others, both publically and privately
-Relates to the internalisation type of conformity


KEY STUDY: Asch (1951)
What was it?

-123 American Male Students
-Participants were shown a line, and then 3 more lines, they had to deciefer which are the same
-There were 7/9 confederates within each group, and one real participant, who would be sat second to last
-A control group were tested individually
-Critical Trials; where all confederates gave identical wrong answers


KEY STUDY: Asch (1951)
What did he find?

-Critical Trials; 32% conformity
-75% conformed at least once
-25% did not conform at all


What were the reasons given in Asch's conformity study for obviously giving the wrong answer?

Distortion of action; avoiding public ridicule
Distortion of perception; ppt. believed they were wrong
Distortion of judgment; had doubts about judgement


Perrin and Spencer recreated Asch's conformity study 29 years later, what did they find?

(British Engineering, Maths and Chemisty students)

Only ONE conforming response within of 396 trials


List some of the attributes of someone with a 'conformist personality'

-Interlectually less effective
-Feelings of inferiority
-Less mature social relationships


What is a social role?

The part that individuals play as members of a social group, which meets the expectations of the situation. People learn to do this by watching others

e.g. son/daughter/student/customer/friend


KEY STUDY: Zimbardo et al. (1973)
What was it?

-21 male university students who responded to a newspaper advertisement
-Zimbardo created a mock prison in a university basement, ppts were randomly selected as prisoners or guards


KEY STUDY: Zimbardo et al. (1973)
What did they find?

-SITUATIONAL HYPOTHESIS; ppts were generally passive people
-After 36 hours a prisoner was released due to an emotional fit, three more were released in the following days. A fifth prisoner developed a rash after denied parole
-Experiment lasted 6 days, out of the planned 14


Evaluation of Zimbardo's Prison Study

-Ethical Issues; brutality and psychological harm
-Demand Characteristics; guards may have acted how they thought they were supposed to


Outline Hoffling et al.'s Nurse Study

-Nurses in a hospital were telephoned by a 'Dr Smith' and asked to administer 20mg of Astroten to a patient
-21/22 nurses followed his instructions


Define what an 'autonomous state' is

When individuals have control and act according to their own wishes and are responsible for their own actions


Define what an 'agentic state' is

When individuals obey orders, and maybe do something unethical as someone else is responsible for the action


KEY STUDY: Milgram (1963)
What was it?

(Cannot be bothered to explain entire study)

-40 American males aged 20-50 who responded to a newspaper advertisement
-15 to 450 volts, at 150 Mr Wallace protests
-"the experiment requires you to continue"


KEY STUDY: Milgram (1963)
What did he find?

-100% of ppts went up to 300 volts
-65% of ppts went up to 450 volts


Evaluation of Milgram's Teacher/Learner Study

-Study created a template for further research
-'Prods' given by the researcher were the same for every ppt

-Practical Applications; people still commit crimes whilst "just following orders"


Outline some variations of Milgram's Teacher/Learner Study

Experimenter giving orders over the phone (62.5% to 20.5%)

Teacher and Learner in the same room (62.5% to 40%)

Teacher having to force Learner's hand onto electric plate (40% to 30%)

Conducted in a rundown office block (62.5% to 47.5%)


Outline the procedure and findings of Blickman (1974)

-3 male experimenters dressed in either a public service uniform or as a civilian and asked people for money for a parking meter

Civilian = 19% compliance
Milkman = 14%
Guard = 38%


Describe what is meant by an 'authoritarian personality'

Someone who hold rigid beliefs, intolerant to authority and hostile to those of lower class


What is the F-Scale, and what did Zilmer et al. find out about it?

The F-Scale is a questionnaire consisting of 30 questions, and assessing 9 personality dimensions

Zilmer et al. found that 16 Nazi war criminals scored highly on three of the dimensions, but not all nine


Evaluation of the F-Scale

-Altemeyer produced a less biased "Right-Wing Authoritarian scale"

-Controversial results; some people, e.g. Zilmer's Nazis, didn't score as highly as predicted


What are the two components of Resistance to Social Influence?

1. Disobedience
2. Non-Conformity, which can occur in two ways:
-Independence (lack of movement toward/away from social expectations)
-Anti-Conformity (consistent movement AWAY from social expectations)


Outline a variation of Asch's study and it's affect on conformity

In one variation, a confederate disagrees with the rest of the group, and real ppts' conformity dropped sharply because of this


Describe what is meant by a 'high internal locus of control'

The belief that one can influence the outcome of a situation through the choices and decisions you make


Describe what is meant by a 'high external locus of control'

The belief that everything happens because of luck or fate regardless of your actions