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1

What is the Echoic store for?

Auditory sensation memory

2

What is the Iconic store for?

Visual sensation memory

3

What is the Haptic store for?

Tactile sensation memory (touch)

4

What is the Olfactory store for?

Smell sensation memory

5

Why is the capacity of the SR so difficult to research?

Memories leave the store so quickly that it is difficult to find out how much was stored initially

6

KEY STUDY: Baddeley (1996)
What was it?

Aim:
-To assess whether STM and LTM are Semantic or Acoustic

Procedure:
-75 ppts. were split into 4 groups and given a list of words. There were 4 different lists:
a. Acoustically similar
b. Acoustically dissimilar
c. Semantically similar
d.Semantically dissimilar

Those being tested for STM were given the list they tried to remember, but had to rearrange the words into the correct order. The LTM ppts did the same, but were distracted for 20 minutes beforehand

7

KEY STUDY: Baddeley (1996)
What did he find?

STM ppts: List A recall was the worst at 10% accuracy, the rest were between 60-80%

LTM ppts: List C recall was the worst at 55% accuracy, the rest were between 70-80%

8

Name the researcher of STM capacity and their findings

Miller (1956)
-Found that people have a digit span of 7+or-2

9

Name the researchers of STM duration and their findings

Peterson and Peterson (1959)
-Found that STM duration is 20-30 seconds

10

KEY STUDY: Peterson and Peterson (1959)
What was it and what did they find?

Procedure:
Participants were presented with trigrams (3 consonants e.g. CPW) and then asked to count backwards from a number in multiples of 3 before recalling the trigram. There were also varied intervals for the length of counting, also in multiples of 3

Findings:
-80% could recall a trigram after a 3 second interval
-10% could recall a trigram after an 18 second interval

11

Outline one criticism of the Peterson and Peterson STM duration study

'Trigrams' are not what we usually use our STM for

12

Who is Clive Wearing?

He is a man who has about 30 second memory duration, and cannot create new LTMs. Although he can still play the piano and read music, suggesting his procedural memory is still intact

13

KEY STUDY: Bahrick et al. (1975)
What was it?

-392 graduates were shown photographs from their high-school yearbook
-The ppts were split into two groups:
Recognition Group (faces to names)
Recall Group (names to faces)

14

KEY STUDY: Bahrick et al. (1975)
What did they find?

Recognition Group; 90% accurate after 14 years, 60% accurate after 47 years

Recall Group; 60% accurate after 7 years, less than 20% after 47 years

15

Name the Encoding method for STM and LTM (include studies)

STM; Visual (Baddeley et al.)

LTM; Semantically (Baddeley et al.)

16

State the capacity for STM and LTM (include studies)

STM; 7+or-2 (Miller's Digit Span Technique)

LTM; Unlimited

17

State the memory duration for STM and LTM (include studies)

STM; Less than 30secs (Peterson and Peterson)

LTM; Potentially a lifetime (Bahrick et al.)

18

Explain what is meant by the 'primary effect' and 'recency effect'

Primary effect; words at the start of a word list are easily recalled from LTM

Recency effect; words at the end of a word list are easily recalled from STM

Together, these are called the 'Serial Position Effect'

19

Outline the strengths of the Multi-Store Model of memory

-Clive Wearing and H.M. are proof that there are two separate stores of memory
-Glanzer and Cunitz; Serial Position Effect

20

Outline the weaknesses of the Multi-Store Model of memory

-Too reductionist
-Doesn't explain the process involved in encoding
-STM and LTM seen as individual stores, some may argue the STM is part of the LTM, activated when necessary

21

What are the four key components to the Working Memory Model?

The Central Executive
The Phonological Loop
The Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad
The Episodic Buffer

22

What is the Central Executive responsible for in the Working Memory Model?

-Controls attention
-Involved in problem solving
-Processes info from the 'slave systems', sensory organs and LTM
-Limited Capacity

23

What is the Phonological Loop responsible for in the Working Memory Model?

Phonological Store (Inner Ear)
-Processes speech-based sounds and encodes them acoustically for a brief period
-Limited Capacity

Articulatory Control Process (Inner Voice)
-Allows subvocal repetition of items stored in the Phonological Store

24

What is the Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad responsible for in the Working Memory Model?

-Stores + processes visual and spatial info
-Has a limited capacity

Visual Cache:
-Stores visual info about form and colour

Inner Scribe:
-Deals with spatial info and body movements
-Transfers info in the Visual Cache to the Central Executive

25

What is the Episodic Buffer responsible for in the Working Memory Model?

-An additional storage system
-Binds together info from the other components to help recall chunks from the LTM
-Limited Capacity

26

Give advantages of the WMM over the Multi-Store Model

-WMM explains how it is easier to do two different tasks simultaneously, rather than two similar ones
-Baddeley got ppts to follow a dot and outline block letter F, ppts struggled as both tasks involve the Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad

27

What is the main weakness of the Working Memory Model?

Lack of research into the precise function of the Central Executive

28

How has brain scanning supported the WMM?

PET; identifies Phonological+Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad
-Left Hemisphere; Spatial
-Right Hemisphere; Visual

29

Outline the different types of Long Term Memory

Explicit (Conscious)
-Episodic; personal events
-Semantic; personal knowledge

Implicit (Unconscious)
-Procedural; performing unconscious actions

30

Episodic memories are associated with which parts of the brain?

-Prefrontal Cortex
-Neocortex
-Hippocampus