Biopsychology (Unit 2) Flashcards Preview

AQA Psychology AS > Biopsychology (Unit 2) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Biopsychology (Unit 2) Deck (37)
Loading flashcards...
1

Illustrate the diagram depicting divisions of the Nervous System

just bloody draw it cheers mate its good practice yknow how these things go

2

Name the two divisions of the Nervous System

Peripheral NS
and
Central NS

3

Name the two divisions of the Peripheral Nervous System

Autonomic NS
and
Somatic NS

4

Name the two divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System

Sympathetic NS
and
Parasympathetic NS

5

Name the two divisions of the Central Nervous System

Spinal Cord
and
Brain

6

What is the function of the Cerebellum?

The cerebellum is involved in controlling motor skills and balance. Also in coordinating the muscles

7

What is the function of the Hypothalamus?

The hypothalamus regulates body temperature, thirst and hunger. Also controls the release of hormones from the pituitary gland

8

What is the function of the Brain Stem?

The brain stem regulates automatic functions (e.g. breathing, swallowing, your heartbeat)

9

Describe and define the role of the Nucleus part of a neuron

Contains genetic material in the form of chromosomes

10

Describe and define the role of the Dendrites part of a neuron

They receive messages from other cells (neurons and sensory receptors) and are covered with synaptic receptor cells

11

Describe and define the role of the Axon part of a neuron

The main conductor within the neuron. Capable of conveying electrical signals over distances

12

Describe and define the role of the Cell Body/Soma part of a neuron

The biggest part, which contains the nucleus and is connected to the dendrites

13

Describe and define the role of the Terminal Buttons part of a neuron

Small knobs t the end of an axon that release neurotransmitters

14

Describe and define the role of the Action Potential part of a neuron

-When chemicals contact with the surface of a neuron, the ion balance changes
-When the imbalance becomes extreme, the effect runs through the cell membrane to the axon

-The Action Potential is this rapid moving of ions

15

Outline the function of a SENSORY NEURON

-Sensory neurons tell the rest of the brain about the external and internal environment by processing information taken from the senses
-Can be found in various places (e.g. ears, tongue, skin)
-They convert information from sensory receptors into neural impulses, and then into sensations
-Unipolar; only transmits from the body to the brain

16

Outline the function of a RELAY NEURON

-Relay neurons carry messages from one part of the CNS to another
-They connect motor and sensory neurons
-Only exist in the brain and spinal chord
-Multipolar; sends and receives messages from many sources

17

Outline the function of a MOTOR NEURON

-Motor neurons carry signals from the CNS which helps organ, gland and muscle function
-They form synapses with muscles, and control their contractions
-When stimulated, the motor neuron releases neurotransmitters which bind to the receptors on the muscle and trigger a response
-Multipolar; capable of sending and receiving messages

18

Define and describe a synapse/synaptic gap

The area between the axon of a neuron and the cell body of another

19

Define 'neurotransmitter' and give some examples

Chemical messengers within the cerebrum

e.g. dopamine or serotonin

20

List the key components of a synaptic transmission

-Nerve Impulse
-Presynaptic Neuron
-Axon
-Vesicles
-Synaptic Gap-Neurotransmitters
-Receptors
-Postsynaptic Neuron
-Dendrite

21

Define 'Excitatory' and 'Inhibitory' neurotransmitters and give examples

Excitatory neurotransmitters increase the likelihood that a neuron will fire (e.g. noradrenaline)

Inhibitory neurotransmitters decrease the likelihood that a neuron will fire (e.g. serotonin and GABA)

22

Describe and define the role of the Pituitary gland as part of the endrocrine system

Controls other glands and makes the hormones that trigger growth

23

Describe and define the role of the Thyroid as part of the endrocrine system

Produces hormones associated with calorie burning and heart rate

24

Describe and define the role of the Parathyroid as part of the endrocrine system

Controls the amount of calcium in the body

25

Describe and define the role of the Adrenal gland as part of the endrocrine system

Produces the hormones which control the sex drive and cortisol (the stress hormone)

26

Describe and define the role of the Pancreas as part of the endrocrine system

Produces Insulin which helps control blood sugar levels

27

Describe and define the role of the Ovary as part of the endrocrine system

Secretes Oestrogen, Testosterone and Progesterone

28

Describe and define the role of the Testicles as part of the endrocrine system

Produces Testosterone and sperm

29

Outline the process of the 'fight or flight' response

Hypothalamus
I
Synthetic Branch of Autonomic NS
I
Adrenal Medulla
I
Adrenaline/Noradrenaline


(Parasympathetic NS reverses this, returning heart rate and blood pressure to normal and speeding up digestion)

30

Evaluation of the Fight or Flight response

Pros:
-Scientific and measures used are objective

Cons:
-Tend and Befriend; females may be less aggressive
-Acute stress may lead to cooperative and friendly behaviour
-Reductionist; only biological explanation