Flashcards in Arousal Deck (25):
What is the definition of arousal?
It is the degree of physiological (somatic) and psychological (cognitive) readiness or activation. This varies on a continuum from deep sleep to intense excitement.
In sport - Drive or energised state that motivates us to perform well.
Intensity aspect of motivation
Can be positive or negative
Physiological (somatic) effects of arousal refer to the changing state of the body
Psychological (cognitive) effects of arousal refer to the changing state of the mind
High cognitive arousal is negative
High somatic arousal is positive (state of readiness)
Over-arousal=loss of concentration
What are the three theories of arousal?
Inverted U theory
What is Drive theory?
As arousal increases so does the quality of performance as long as dominant response is correct
What is dominant response?
Typical response to a stimulus when put under pressure
Can be incorrect or correct.
What is drive reduction?
Motivation is lost when a skill is over-learned and the task become tedious/performer feels they've performed to the best of their ability.
New targets/goals need to be set to re-motivate.
What is inverted U theory?
As arousal increases so does the quality of performance as long as dominant response is correct up to an optimum point, after which there is a gradual decrease in performance.
What happens if a performer is under aroused?
Sub optimal performance
Attentional field is too wide
Taking in too many cues
What happens if a performer is over aroused?
Sub optimal performance
State of high anxiety
Attentional field is too narrow
Miss important cues
Selective attention does not operate - illogical decisions
Concentration seriously impeded
Describe what happens at the optimum point of arousal
Potential for learning is maximised
Attentional field is ideal width
Takes in all important cues and ignores irrelevant cues (selective attention)
What is hyper vigilance?
A condition of nervousness and panic often accompanied by extreme anxiety
What is cue utilisation?
The process of focusing on the most important information or cues from the environmental display
What 4 factors effect the optimum point of arousal?
Type of task
Stage of learning
Level of experience
Describe the personality factor of the optimum point of arousal
Introverts - Can't cope with high levels of arousal
Lower optimum point of arousal
Extroverts - Cope better with arousal
Higher optimum point of arousal
Describe the type of task factor of the optimum point of arousal
Gross, simple and closed have a higher optimum point of arousal (weight lifting/Swimming)
Fine, complex and open skills have a lower optimum point of arousal - require concentration (archery)`
Describe the stage of learning factor of the optimum point of arousal
Cognitive/associative - lower point of optimum arousal
Autonomous - Correct dominant response so higher optimum point of arousal
Describe the level of experience factor of the optimum point of arousal
Novice - Lower point of optimum arousal, situation is unfamiliar
Experienced - Higher point of optimum arousal, situation is familiar.
What is catastrophe theory?
As arousal increases so does the quality of performance as long as dominant response is correct up to an optimum point after which, there is a catastrophic drop in performance.
What is peak flow?
The ultimate intrinsic experience, when performance is flawless. Athletes refer to it as being in the zone. All theories show that performance is related to the amount of inner-drive and self-motivation.
Positives of drive theory
Explains why autonomous performers work well with high levels of arousal (correct dominant response)
Explains why cognitive performers need low levels of arousal (Incorrect dominant response)
High arousal = high performance with explosive skills
Negatives of drive theory
Isn't applicable to novices
Doesn't explain decline in performance at high arousal levels
Doesn't explain high performance in low arousal
Positives of inverted U theory
Explains why performers perform badly at high and low levels of arousal.
Explains task type, personality, skill level and experience
Explains attentional fields
Negatives of inverted U theory
Doesn't explain the sudden drop in performance that some performers experience
Doesn't take into account task type/personality/skill level/experience
Positives of catastrophe theory
Explains why performance can suddenly decline
Only theory that explains how performers can recover
Takes various factors into account