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PE - Psychology > Attitude > Flashcards

Flashcards in Attitude Deck (38):
1

What is the definition of attitude?

A mode of behaviour that is thought to be the typical response of an individual. It is an emotional response. A set of beliefs and feelings towards an attitude object.

2

What are the 4 characteristics of attitude?

Attitudes can be positive or negative
They are directed to a particular situation
They are enduring/hard to change
They are learned and judgemental

3

What are the 4 things that affect attitude formation?

Socialisation/culture
Peer groups
Media
Past experiences

4

Describe socialisation and culture as a factor affecting attitude formation

It's the interaction with others that modifies our behaviour. Often formed by parents and the values we are brought up with.
Parents like football - so do you

5

Describe peer groups as a factor affecting attitude formation

Our immediate group of friends and people of significance begin to influence attitudes as we get older.
Friends prefer rugby to football - so do you

6

Describe media as a factor affecting attitude formation

Attitudes formed by what we see, hear and read in the media.
Hear the dangers of rugby - stop playing

7

Describe past experiences as a factor affecting attitude formation

Above all else our day-to-day experiences influence our attitudes
Injured during rugby match - don't play again.

8

What are the 3 components of attitude?

Cognitive
Affective
Behavioural

9

Describe the cognitive component of attitude

Beliefs/knowledge
Want to jog because it's good for the cardiovascular system.

10

Describe the affective component of attitude

Emotional response
Went jogging and enjoyed it

11

Describe the behavioural component of attitide

Intention of behaviour
Will continue jogging because it's good for me and its enjoyable.

12

What must happen if an attitude is to be stable?

All components must be consistent

13

Definition of cognitive dissonance thoery

Disagreement or disharmony between the components of attitude causing emotional conflict or discomfort between two or more components of attitudes.

14

How do you change attitude using cognitive dissonance?

Changing one component in the triadic model can change the whole attitude as there is a drive for consonance (harmony).

15

How do you change the cognitive element of attitude?

Educate
Explain to someone that is scared all the safety things that are in place

16

How do you change the affective element of attitude?

Change the emotion (increase enjoyment)
Do activities that are enjoyable

17

How do you change the behavioural element of attitude?

Persuade
Persuade them to go

18

What is persuasive communication?

This method involves changing an attitude using verbal persuasion

19

What are the four components of persuasive communication?

The persuader
The recipient
The message
The situation

20

Describe the persuader component of persuasive communication

Must have high status/be a role model
Eg the coach of the team

21

Describe the recipient component of persuasive communication

The recipient must want to change
Eg the player understands why change is needed

22

Describe the message component of persuasive communication

Must be presented in a way that makes the player want to change
Normally presented in a positive way Eg you have the skill to perform this tactic

23

Describe the situation component of persuasive communication

Attitudes are more likely to be changed if other persuaders are present
Eg teammates encouraging a player.

24

Describe positive attitudes towards sport

They value exercise
Enjoy activities and competition
They are talented
Excited by physical challenge
Enjoy the personal expression
Relax and stress free when participating
See participation as the social norm

25

Describe negative attitudes towards sport

They believe it is harmful
They dislike the experiences involved
They lack the physical/perceptual skills required
They are frightened by the activities
They experience stress/anxiety when they participate
They see not participating in sport as the social norm

26

What does social norm mean?

Behaviours that are deemed normal within a culture and are created through socialisation

27

What is the definition of culture?

Members of a community learning certain behaviours that are shared among those within the community of people or our society.

28

What is a stereotype?

A belief held by a collection of people about traits shared by a certain category of person
Eg Women playing rugby are butch.

29

What are the 9 strategies to improve a performers attitude?

Positive reinforcement
Negative reinforcement
Punishment
Role models
Reattribution
Raising self-esteem
Raising self-confidence
Peer pressure
Goal setting

30

Give an example of positive reinforcement as a strategy to improve a performers attitude

Praise/reward for showing positive behaviour towards an attitude object

31

Give an example of negative reinforcement as a strategy to improve a performers attitude

Present annoyer/criticise negative behaviour towards an attitude object.

32

Give an example of punishment as a strategy to improve a performers attitude

Punish negative behaviour towards an attitude object
(Racism - fined/fired)

33

Give an example of role models as a strategy to improve a performers attitude

High status/authoritative/same gender coach telling them to show better behaviour to an attitude object

34

Give an example of reattribution as a strategy to improve a performers attitude

Changing perception of the reasons for failure

35

Give an example of raising self-esteem as a strategy to improve a performers attitude

Feelings about themselves/feelings of self worth
(believe in themselves more=changed attitude)

36

Give an example of raising self confidence as a strategy to improve a performers attitude

Situation specific, good at something
(praise, feel good, practice=change attitude)`

37

Give an example of group/peer pressure as a strategy to improve a performers attitude

Close friends/teammates praising positive behaviour towards an attitude object

38

Give an example of goal setting as a strategy to improve a performers attitude

To take part in 3 recreational football matches each month