Flashcards in Attitude Deck (38):
What is the definition of attitude?
A mode of behaviour that is thought to be the typical response of an individual. It is an emotional response. A set of beliefs and feelings towards an attitude object.
What are the 4 characteristics of attitude?
Attitudes can be positive or negative
They are directed to a particular situation
They are enduring/hard to change
They are learned and judgemental
What are the 4 things that affect attitude formation?
Describe socialisation and culture as a factor affecting attitude formation
It's the interaction with others that modifies our behaviour. Often formed by parents and the values we are brought up with.
Parents like football - so do you
Describe peer groups as a factor affecting attitude formation
Our immediate group of friends and people of significance begin to influence attitudes as we get older.
Friends prefer rugby to football - so do you
Describe media as a factor affecting attitude formation
Attitudes formed by what we see, hear and read in the media.
Hear the dangers of rugby - stop playing
Describe past experiences as a factor affecting attitude formation
Above all else our day-to-day experiences influence our attitudes
Injured during rugby match - don't play again.
What are the 3 components of attitude?
Describe the cognitive component of attitude
Want to jog because it's good for the cardiovascular system.
Describe the affective component of attitude
Went jogging and enjoyed it
Describe the behavioural component of attitide
Intention of behaviour
Will continue jogging because it's good for me and its enjoyable.
What must happen if an attitude is to be stable?
All components must be consistent
Definition of cognitive dissonance thoery
Disagreement or disharmony between the components of attitude causing emotional conflict or discomfort between two or more components of attitudes.
How do you change attitude using cognitive dissonance?
Changing one component in the triadic model can change the whole attitude as there is a drive for consonance (harmony).
How do you change the cognitive element of attitude?
Explain to someone that is scared all the safety things that are in place
How do you change the affective element of attitude?
Change the emotion (increase enjoyment)
Do activities that are enjoyable
How do you change the behavioural element of attitude?
Persuade them to go
What is persuasive communication?
This method involves changing an attitude using verbal persuasion
What are the four components of persuasive communication?
Describe the persuader component of persuasive communication
Must have high status/be a role model
Eg the coach of the team
Describe the recipient component of persuasive communication
The recipient must want to change
Eg the player understands why change is needed
Describe the message component of persuasive communication
Must be presented in a way that makes the player want to change
Normally presented in a positive way Eg you have the skill to perform this tactic
Describe the situation component of persuasive communication
Attitudes are more likely to be changed if other persuaders are present
Eg teammates encouraging a player.
Describe positive attitudes towards sport
They value exercise
Enjoy activities and competition
They are talented
Excited by physical challenge
Enjoy the personal expression
Relax and stress free when participating
See participation as the social norm
Describe negative attitudes towards sport
They believe it is harmful
They dislike the experiences involved
They lack the physical/perceptual skills required
They are frightened by the activities
They experience stress/anxiety when they participate
They see not participating in sport as the social norm
What does social norm mean?
Behaviours that are deemed normal within a culture and are created through socialisation
What is the definition of culture?
Members of a community learning certain behaviours that are shared among those within the community of people or our society.
What is a stereotype?
A belief held by a collection of people about traits shared by a certain category of person
Eg Women playing rugby are butch.
What are the 9 strategies to improve a performers attitude?
Give an example of positive reinforcement as a strategy to improve a performers attitude
Praise/reward for showing positive behaviour towards an attitude object
Give an example of negative reinforcement as a strategy to improve a performers attitude
Present annoyer/criticise negative behaviour towards an attitude object.
Give an example of punishment as a strategy to improve a performers attitude
Punish negative behaviour towards an attitude object
(Racism - fined/fired)
Give an example of role models as a strategy to improve a performers attitude
High status/authoritative/same gender coach telling them to show better behaviour to an attitude object
Give an example of reattribution as a strategy to improve a performers attitude
Changing perception of the reasons for failure
Give an example of raising self-esteem as a strategy to improve a performers attitude
Feelings about themselves/feelings of self worth
(believe in themselves more=changed attitude)
Give an example of raising self confidence as a strategy to improve a performers attitude
Situation specific, good at something
(praise, feel good, practice=change attitude)`
Give an example of group/peer pressure as a strategy to improve a performers attitude
Close friends/teammates praising positive behaviour towards an attitude object