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PE - Psychology > Personality > Flashcards

Flashcards in Personality Deck (54):
1

What is the definition of personality?

The pattern of psychological characteristics that make a person unique.

2

What is the nature of personality?

Unique
Stable/enduring
Adaptable to different situations

3

What are the 3 theories of personality?

Trait theory, Social learning theory and interactionist approach

4

What does trait theory state personality is determined by?

Inherited or genetically predetermined qualities

5

What does trait theory say the nature of personality is?

Stable/enduring
Consistent in all situations
Generalised
Predictable

6

What are the 2 theories that belong to the trait perspective of personality?

Eysenck's Personality Types
Gidano's Narrow Band Theory

7

What does social learning theory state personality is determined by?

Copying the behaviour of others and being reinforced for copying it

8

What does social learning theory say the nature of personality is?

Behaviour is learned from the environment
Personality or behaviour is predictable if the same situation reoccurs.

9

What does the interactionist approach state personality is determined by?

Interaction or relationship between personality traits and the situation/environment
Behaviour changing to the demands of the situation/environment
a combination of trait and social learning factors

10

What does the interactionist approach state the nature of personality is?

Typical responses emerge from the combination of personality traits and the environment
Personality or behaviour is unpredictable

11

What does Eysenck's personality types propose?

Personality traits are seen as generalisable and behaviour can be predicted in various situations

12

What are the 4 parts of Eysenck's personality types?

Extrovert
Introvert
Neurotic
Stable

13

What is the extra scale Eysenck added?

Psychoticism
High - Tough-minded, takes risks, non-conformists, may engage in anti-social behaviour, unconcerned about others
Low - Tender, sensitive, warm, concerned about others

14

Describe an extrovert

Seeks out social situations
Likes excitement
Lacks concentration
RAS that reduces the effects of external sensory stimuli
Low levels of arousal/arousal occurs more slowly

15

What does RAS stand form?

Reticular activating system

16

Describe an introvert

Doesn't seek social situations
Likes peace and quiet
Good concentration
RAS that heightens the effects of external sensory stimuli
High levels of arousal/arousal occurs more quickly

17

Describe a stable performer

Predictable temperament - suited to sports needing high performance
Moods are likely to be consistent
Appear calm and relaxed
Likely to be low in anxiety
Realistic/logical perception of a situation

18

Describe a neurotic performer

Unpredictable temperament - Not ideal for sports participation
Moods are likely to be inconsistent
Prone to worry and high anxiety
Unrealistic/illogical perception of a situation

19

What did Girdano propose?

There are two distinct personality types
Type A and Type B

20

What did Girdano say type A personalities were like?

High competitive drive
Prone to excessive anxiety
Tendency towards aggression
Works fast and is ambitious
Impatient
Experience high levels of stress/arousal

21

What did Girdano say type B personalities were like?

Less competitive
Can relax/subdue anxiety
Passive
Works more slowly/calm under pressure
Patient
Low levels of stress/anxiety

22

What 6 things did Girdano compare?

Competitiveness
Anxiety
Aggression
Pace of work
Patience
Arousal

23

What is Girdano's theory called?

Narrow band theory

24

Why are traits poor predictors of behaviours?

They can change
People adapt behaviour in response to the environment
Other influences on personality aren't considered

25

Who came up with the social learning theory?

Bandura

26

What does social learning theory propose?

All behaviour is learned from environmental experience also known as vicarious learning

27

Describe social learning theory

Observe/copy behaviour of others
Learning requires reinforcement from role models

28

What are the 2 processes involved in social learning?

Behaviour being imitated through observation
Behaviour being acquired after observation but only when endorsed through social reinforcement

29

What is an example of behaviour being imitated through observation?

A performer watching a coach show sportsmanship and therefore observing that and imitating it.

30

What is an example of behaviour being acquired after observation but only when endorsed through social reinforcement?

If a player sees a coach showing sportsmanship they may imitate that and also show sportsmanship however, they would only keep doing it if reinforced.

31

What 6 things should a role model be in order for social learning to take place?

Approachable - performer must be able to talk to them
Behaviour - Must be meaningful to performer
Same Gender/Similar Age
Relevant - High status
Authoritative - Experience, commands respect, power
Consistent - behaviour is always the same

32

Who came up with the interactionist approach?

Hollander

33

What does the interactionist approach propose?

Personality is made up of three layers
Inner layer - Psychological core
Middle layer - Typical response
Outer layer - Role related behaviour

34

Definition of interactionist approach

Behaviour occurs from the influence of inherited traits and learned experience

35

Describe the interactionist approach

Personality is modified and behaviour is formed when genetically-inherited traits are triggered by an environmental circumstance

36

Describe the psychological core (Interactionist approach)

Nor affected by the environment
Permanent qualities, beliefs and values
Possibly controls and dictates behaviour
Traits aspect of personality
Affects the next layer

37

Describe the typical response (Interactionist approach)

How we usually respond to certain situations
Is learned behaviour
Informed by our psychological core
More changeable than the core but still difficult to change

38

Describe role-related behaviour (Interactionist approach)

Typical responses affected by our circumstances
Behaviour is completely different at different times in different situations - changeable
May be very unlike our psychological core
Most visible aspect of our personality

39

Anxious example of Interactionist approach

Psychological core - Anxious naturally
Typical response - When under pressure, feel anxious
Role-related behaviour - If confident about a skill may not be anxious, eg rugby player catching a ball.

40

Aggression example of Interactionist approach

Psychological core - Aggressive naturally
Typical response - If provoked, act aggressively
Role-related behaviour - If made captain may control aggression more as they need to be a role model to other players

41

What is personality profiling?

An overall assessment of an individual's personality

42

How do you assess personality?

Questionnaires

43

What are the examples of questionnaires that are used for personality profile?

Eysenck's personality inventory
Cattell's 16 PF questionnaire
The sports competition anxiety test (SCAT)
Profile of mood states (POMS)

44

Which moods are measured in POMS?

Tension
Depression
Anger
Vigour
Fatigue
Confusion

45

Which people came up with the humanistic theory of personality?

Roger's self-actualisation
Maslow's Hierarchy of needs

46

What does the humanistic theory state?

Individuals have a need for self-actualisation (personal growth) and to realise their potential as human beings.

47

What 2 needs did Rogers find that you need to reach self-actualisation?

Positive self regard, feeling good about oneself
Conditional positive regard, needing the approval of others to feel good about oneself

48

What is Maslow's hierarchy of needs?

Five-tier model of human needs.
People are motivated to meet certain needs, some needs take priority over others.
The lower levels are the highest priority.
People fluctuate between the levels.
Motivation is achieving the next level up.

49

What are the 5 tiers of Maslow's hierarchy of needs?

Highest priority/lowest level - Physiological
Safety
Love/belonging
Esteem
Lowest priority/highest level - Self-actualisation

50

Describe the physiological tier of Maslow's hierarchy of needs

Breathing, food, water, reproduction, sleep, homeostasis, excretion

51

Describe the safety tier of Maslow's hierarchy of needs

Security of body, employment, resources, morality, the family, health, property

52

Describe the love/belonging tier of Maslow's hierarchy of needs

Friendship, family, sexual intimacy

53

Describe the esteem tier of Maslow's hierarchy of needs?

Self-esteem, confidence, achievement, respect of others, respect by others.

54

Describe the self-actualisation tier of Maslow's hierarchy of needs

Morality, creativity, spontaneity, problem solving, lack of prejudice, acceptance of facts.