Flashcards in Personality Deck (54):
What is the definition of personality?
The pattern of psychological characteristics that make a person unique.
What is the nature of personality?
Adaptable to different situations
What are the 3 theories of personality?
Trait theory, Social learning theory and interactionist approach
What does trait theory state personality is determined by?
Inherited or genetically predetermined qualities
What does trait theory say the nature of personality is?
Consistent in all situations
What are the 2 theories that belong to the trait perspective of personality?
Eysenck's Personality Types
Gidano's Narrow Band Theory
What does social learning theory state personality is determined by?
Copying the behaviour of others and being reinforced for copying it
What does social learning theory say the nature of personality is?
Behaviour is learned from the environment
Personality or behaviour is predictable if the same situation reoccurs.
What does the interactionist approach state personality is determined by?
Interaction or relationship between personality traits and the situation/environment
Behaviour changing to the demands of the situation/environment
a combination of trait and social learning factors
What does the interactionist approach state the nature of personality is?
Typical responses emerge from the combination of personality traits and the environment
Personality or behaviour is unpredictable
What does Eysenck's personality types propose?
Personality traits are seen as generalisable and behaviour can be predicted in various situations
What are the 4 parts of Eysenck's personality types?
What is the extra scale Eysenck added?
High - Tough-minded, takes risks, non-conformists, may engage in anti-social behaviour, unconcerned about others
Low - Tender, sensitive, warm, concerned about others
Describe an extrovert
Seeks out social situations
RAS that reduces the effects of external sensory stimuli
Low levels of arousal/arousal occurs more slowly
What does RAS stand form?
Reticular activating system
Describe an introvert
Doesn't seek social situations
Likes peace and quiet
RAS that heightens the effects of external sensory stimuli
High levels of arousal/arousal occurs more quickly
Describe a stable performer
Predictable temperament - suited to sports needing high performance
Moods are likely to be consistent
Appear calm and relaxed
Likely to be low in anxiety
Realistic/logical perception of a situation
Describe a neurotic performer
Unpredictable temperament - Not ideal for sports participation
Moods are likely to be inconsistent
Prone to worry and high anxiety
Unrealistic/illogical perception of a situation
What did Girdano propose?
There are two distinct personality types
Type A and Type B
What did Girdano say type A personalities were like?
High competitive drive
Prone to excessive anxiety
Tendency towards aggression
Works fast and is ambitious
Experience high levels of stress/arousal
What did Girdano say type B personalities were like?
Can relax/subdue anxiety
Works more slowly/calm under pressure
Low levels of stress/anxiety
What 6 things did Girdano compare?
Pace of work
What is Girdano's theory called?
Narrow band theory
Why are traits poor predictors of behaviours?
They can change
People adapt behaviour in response to the environment
Other influences on personality aren't considered
Who came up with the social learning theory?
What does social learning theory propose?
All behaviour is learned from environmental experience also known as vicarious learning
Describe social learning theory
Observe/copy behaviour of others
Learning requires reinforcement from role models
What are the 2 processes involved in social learning?
Behaviour being imitated through observation
Behaviour being acquired after observation but only when endorsed through social reinforcement
What is an example of behaviour being imitated through observation?
A performer watching a coach show sportsmanship and therefore observing that and imitating it.
What is an example of behaviour being acquired after observation but only when endorsed through social reinforcement?
If a player sees a coach showing sportsmanship they may imitate that and also show sportsmanship however, they would only keep doing it if reinforced.
What 6 things should a role model be in order for social learning to take place?
Approachable - performer must be able to talk to them
Behaviour - Must be meaningful to performer
Same Gender/Similar Age
Relevant - High status
Authoritative - Experience, commands respect, power
Consistent - behaviour is always the same
Who came up with the interactionist approach?
What does the interactionist approach propose?
Personality is made up of three layers
Inner layer - Psychological core
Middle layer - Typical response
Outer layer - Role related behaviour
Definition of interactionist approach
Behaviour occurs from the influence of inherited traits and learned experience
Describe the interactionist approach
Personality is modified and behaviour is formed when genetically-inherited traits are triggered by an environmental circumstance
Describe the psychological core (Interactionist approach)
Nor affected by the environment
Permanent qualities, beliefs and values
Possibly controls and dictates behaviour
Traits aspect of personality
Affects the next layer
Describe the typical response (Interactionist approach)
How we usually respond to certain situations
Is learned behaviour
Informed by our psychological core
More changeable than the core but still difficult to change
Describe role-related behaviour (Interactionist approach)
Typical responses affected by our circumstances
Behaviour is completely different at different times in different situations - changeable
May be very unlike our psychological core
Most visible aspect of our personality
Anxious example of Interactionist approach
Psychological core - Anxious naturally
Typical response - When under pressure, feel anxious
Role-related behaviour - If confident about a skill may not be anxious, eg rugby player catching a ball.
Aggression example of Interactionist approach
Psychological core - Aggressive naturally
Typical response - If provoked, act aggressively
Role-related behaviour - If made captain may control aggression more as they need to be a role model to other players
What is personality profiling?
An overall assessment of an individual's personality
How do you assess personality?
What are the examples of questionnaires that are used for personality profile?
Eysenck's personality inventory
Cattell's 16 PF questionnaire
The sports competition anxiety test (SCAT)
Profile of mood states (POMS)
Which moods are measured in POMS?
Which people came up with the humanistic theory of personality?
Maslow's Hierarchy of needs
What does the humanistic theory state?
Individuals have a need for self-actualisation (personal growth) and to realise their potential as human beings.
What 2 needs did Rogers find that you need to reach self-actualisation?
Positive self regard, feeling good about oneself
Conditional positive regard, needing the approval of others to feel good about oneself
What is Maslow's hierarchy of needs?
Five-tier model of human needs.
People are motivated to meet certain needs, some needs take priority over others.
The lower levels are the highest priority.
People fluctuate between the levels.
Motivation is achieving the next level up.
What are the 5 tiers of Maslow's hierarchy of needs?
Highest priority/lowest level - Physiological
Lowest priority/highest level - Self-actualisation
Describe the physiological tier of Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Breathing, food, water, reproduction, sleep, homeostasis, excretion
Describe the safety tier of Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Security of body, employment, resources, morality, the family, health, property
Describe the love/belonging tier of Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Friendship, family, sexual intimacy
Describe the esteem tier of Maslow's hierarchy of needs?
Self-esteem, confidence, achievement, respect of others, respect by others.