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Spinal Exam One > Arthrology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Arthrology Deck (43):
1

What is the term used to identify the study of joints

Arthrology

2

What term is used to identify the study of ligaments

syndesmology

3

What are the three histological classifications of joints

fibrous, cartilaginous and synovial fluid

4

What are the tree classifications of joints based on movement potential

synarthrosis, amphiarthrosis and diarthrosis

5

Which classification of synarthrosis implies a bond condition

syndesmosis

6

What is the classification of a joint held together with cartilage

synchondrosis

7

What is the classification of a joint formed by a growth condition

symphysis

8

What is the name given to a condition in which bones are fused together by bone

synostosis

9

What is the condition in which teeth are abnormally aligned during closure of the mouth

malocclusion

10

What fibrous connective tissue classically fills the joint space of a syndesmosis

interosseous ligament

11

What are the classic examples of the less moveable or "fixed" syndesmosis

tibia-fibula shaft articulation, radio-ulnar shaft articulation, coraco-clavicular joint or tympano-stapedial joint

12

What are the examples of the typical syndesmosis from the vertebral column

most of the ligamentous joints of the vertebral column and ligamentous sacro-iliac joints

13

What are the characteristics of the (amphiarthrosis) synchondrosis

they are primary cartilage joints, temporary in longevity, composed of hyaline cartilage and form between ossification centers within a cartilage template

14

What are examples of temporary cartilage joints

metaphysis, neuro-central joint, neural-arch joint and chondrocranium

15

What are examples of a permanent (amphiarthrosis) synchondrosis

costochondral joints or the first sternochondral joint

16

Which cartilage joint classification would be considered secondary

(amphiarthrosis) symphisis

17

What type of cartilage is characteristic of the (amphiarthrosis) symphisis

fibrocartilage or fibrous cartilage

18

What are the characteristics of a (amphiarthrosis) symphisis

limited motion, median plane location, support ligaments both anterior and posterior to the joint, more permanent in longevity than synchondrosis and they occur between bones developing by endochondral ossification

19

What are the classic examples of a (amphiarthrosis) symphisis

intervertebral disc, pubic symphysis, sternal symphyses and symphysis menti

20

Which example of a (amphiarthrosis) symphysis is temporary

symphysis menti

21

What are the four consistent features of synovial (diarthrosis) joints

articular or fibrous capsule, synovial membrane, articular cartilage and synovial fluid

22

Thickening of the fibrous capsule connective tissue will form the

Capsular ligament

23

What generic accessory ligaments may accompany and support the capsular ligamnet

intracapsular and extracapsular ligaments

24

What are the characteristics of the type 1 articular receptors

located in the superficial layer of the fibrous capsule, resemble Ruffini endings, most numerous in cervical zygapophyses and they monitor the joint "at rest"

25

What are the characteristics of type two articular receptors

located in deeper strata of the fibrous capsule, resemble Pacinian corpuscles, most numerous in the cervical spine and monitor the joint during normal range of motion

26

What are the characteristics of type three articular receptors

present in collateral and intrinsic ligaments, resemble Golgi tendon organs not initially observed along the vertebral column and monitor extreme jonint motion

27

What is the function of type four articular receptors 

nociceptive, the monitor pain

28

Type four A articular receptors would be present in what locations

Fibrous capsule, articular fat pads or adventitia of blood vessels

29

Type four B articular receptors would be present in what locations 

accessory ligaments in general, dense in the Posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine

30

type four articular receptors would be absent in what part(s) of the synovial (diarthrosis) joint

synovial membrane articular cartilage and synovial menisci or intra-articular discs

31

What are the three modifications of articular synovial membrane

1) synovial villi

2) articular fat pads or Haversian glands

3) synovial menisci and intra-articular discs

32

What is the generic function of modifications of articular synovial membrane 

aid in spreading synovial fluid

33

What is the apparent function of synovial villi

increase the surface of synovial membrane available for secretion-absorbtion phenomena

34

Where are the articular fat pads located

in the fibrous layer of synovial membrane; they are absent from articular cartilage, synovial menisci, intraarticular disc

35

Articular fat pads are most numerous in what locations along the vertebral column

lumbar zygapophyses

36

Intra-articular discs are a feature of what joint examples

 

temporomandibular, sternoclavicular, acromioclavicular and radio-ulnar joints

37

Synovial menisci are a feature of what joint examples

femur-tibia articulations, cervical zygapophyses and lumbar zygapophyses

38

What are the layers of the synovial membrace 

outer fibrous layer and an inner (lumenal) cellular layer AKA synovial lamina intima

39

What are the specific functions of type A synovial cells

are phagocytic

40

What is the specific function of type B synovial cells

secrete proteinaceous substances and hyaluronic acid

41

What are the primary constituents of articular cartilage

water, cells, collagen type 2 fibers and proteoglycan gel

42

What is the primary function of bound glycosaminoglycans in articular cartilage

form a network for water retention

43