Flashcards in Arthrology of the anterior thorax Deck (70):
How many primary centers of ossification appear in the corpus sterni?
In what part of the sternum will a secondary enter of ossification appear?
the xiphoid process
In what part of the rib will primary centers of ossification appear?
the body (corpus, shaft)
In what parts of the rib will secondary centers of ossification appear?
the head, articular surface of the tubercle and the non-articular surface of the tubercle
Which ribs will demonstrate secondary centers of ossification?
Which rib lacks secondary centers of ossification?
ribs 11 and 12
Which ribs demonstrate three secondary centers of ossification?
Which ribs have only two secondary centers of ossification?
ribs 1 and 10
How does rib 1 differ in ossification centers from typical ribs?
rib 1 has two secondary centers of ossification: one for the head and one for the tubercle; typical ribs have three secondary centers of ossification
What are the four subclassifications of synarthrosis joints based on Latin grouping?
suture, gomphosis, schindylesis and syndesmosis
What were the five types of suture based on Latin grouping?
serrate, denticulate, limbous, squamous and harmonia
What are the characteristics of sutura vera (true sutures)?
sutures demonstrating interlocking of the adjacent bone surfaces; typically formed by intramembranous ossification
What are the characteristics of sutura notha (false sutures)?
sutures lacking interlocking of adjacent bone surfaces; typically formed by endochondral ossification
Which sutures demonstrate non-interlock, but will overlap at their edges?
What were the classifications of sutura notha (false sutures) based on Latin grouping?
squamous and harmonia
What re the typical examples of the plane suture or harmonia suture?
cruciate suture made up of the intermaxillary, interpalatine and palto-maxillary sutures
What are the examples of the schindylesis type of suture?
sphenoid - ethmoid - vomer articulation, the palatine - maxilla - vomer articulation
What are the examples of the gomphosis joint?
maxilla - root of tooth; mandible - root of tooth
What are the five views of the skull called?
norma verticalis, norma fronta;is, norma occipitalis, norma lateralis, norma basalis
What is the diamond shaped remnant of developing membrane bone at the intersection of the frontal bone with both parietal bones?
the anterior fontanelle
What is the diamond shaped remnant of developing membrane bone at the intersection of the occipital bone with both parietal bones?
the posterior fontanelle
What is the norma frontalis?
the skull is viewed from the front
What is the name given to the outline of the nasal cavity at the front of the skull?
What is the name given to the alveolar jugum of the canine tooth in the maxilla?
What forms a bullet-like chin?
a large mental protuberance
What forms an indented chin?
well developed bilateral mental tubercles and a slight mental protuberance
What is the appearance of suture intersections just above the zygomatic arch called?
what bones form the pterion?
parietal, temporal, sphenoid and frontal
What points on the skull re used to measure the skull size?
the nasion, vertex, inion and gnathion
What points on the skull are used to measure cranial vault capacity?
the nasion, vertex and inion
the olfactory nerve exits the cranial vault via what opening?
cribiform plate of the ethmoid
What are the contents of the optic canal?
the optic nerve and opthalmic artery
What are the contents of the superior orbital fissure?
the opthalmic veins, the oculomotor nerve, the troclear nerve, the opthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve, and the middle meningeal artery
What forms the roof of the posterior cranial fossa?
the tentorium cerebelli
What part of the cerebrum occupies the posterior cranial fossa?
none; the tentorium cerebelli separates the cerebrum into a space above the posterior cranial fossa
What part of the central nerve system occupies the posterior cranial fossa?
the cerebellum, pons, and the medulla oblongata
What are the contents of the internal acoustic meatus?
cranial nerves VII (facial nerve) and VIII (vestibulocochlear/auditory nerve), the nervus intermedius/nerve of Wrisberg/sensory roof of VII and the motor root of VII, the vestibular and cochlear roots of VII and the internal auditory/internal labyrinthine artery and vein
What are the contents of the jugular foramen?
the jugular bulb, the inferior petrosal sinus, the tympanic body/tympanic glomus or jugular glomus, cranial nerves IX (glossopharyngeal), X (vagus) and XI (spinal accessory)
What can the five layers of the scalp spell?
Skin, Connective tissue, Aponeurosis, Loose Connective Tissue, Periosteum . . . SCALP
What are the principal sources of blood to the scalp?
internal carotid and external carotid artery branches
Which division of the trigeminal nerve receive sensory information from the scalp?
all 3 divisions: opthalmic nerve, maxillary nerve, & mandibular nerve
Which ventral rami branches supply the scalp?
greater auricular and lesser occipital scalp?
Which dorsal ramus nerve branch ( name and cord level of origin) supplies the scalp?
greater occipital nerve - C2, C3 communicating ramus
Which muscles lack any attachment to bone?
orbicularis oris, procerus & risorius
What type of motor fibers to skeletal muscles innervated by the facial nerve?
branchial efferent (BE)
Most of the seventh cranial nerve will exit the skull via what opening?
the stylomastoid foramen
the optic canal is located along which wall of the orbit?
superior wall of the orbit
What are the contents of the optic canal?
optic nerve & opthalmic artery
What are the openings located along the medial wall of the orbit?
anterior ethmoid and posterior ethmoid foramina
What is the name given to the medial wall of the orbit?
The superior orbital fissure is located along which wall of the orbit?
lateral wall of the orbit
What re the contents of the superior orbital fissure?
oculomotor, trochlear and abducent/abducens cranial nerves
opthalmic division of the trigeminal cranial nerve and opthalmic veins
What opening(s) are located along the inferior wall of the orbit?
inferior orbital fissure
What is contained in the inferior orbital fissure?
maxillary division of trigeminal nerve
What are the names given to the modified sebaceous gland in the tarsus of the eyelid?
tarsal or Meidbomian gland
What is the name given to the blind sac formed between the palpebral and bulbar conjuctiva?
the superior or inferior fornix
What is the name given to the angle formed between the superior and inferior eyelids at their medial and lateral margins?
What is the canthus?
the angle formed between the upper and lower eyelids at the medial and lateral margins
What is an/a epicanthus/epicanthal fold/palpebronasal fold, Mongolian fold?
tissue forming the rounded margin of the medial canthus
What specific pathways are identified with Visceral Efferent (VE) innervation?
sympathetic and parasympathetic motor pathways
How many neurons are involved in the Visceral Efferent pathways from CNS to target cell?
two motor neurons
What is the location for the second neuron in the Visceral Efferent (VE) pathway?
typically a ganglion
Which cranial nerves are involved in the Visceral Efferent (VE) parasympathetic pathway to the lacrimal gland?
facial and trigeminal (maxillary and opthalmic division/branches)
What is the origin for the sympathetic pathway to the lacrimal gland?
lateral horn/intermediolateral cell column T1,T2
What is the target of the preganglionic sympathetic visceral efferent (VE) fiber in the pathway to the lacrimal gland?
the VE fiber ascends to the superior cervical ganglion to synapse
Sympathetic stimulation of the lacrimal gland will result in what events?
vasoconstriction of blood vessels, limited availability of water to secretory units, move viscous or thicker product formed in glandular lumen
Parasympathetic stimulation of targets in the lacrimal gland will result in what events?
vasodilation of blood vessels, increased availability of water to secretory units, thinner or more watery product in lumen;
constriction of myoepithelial cells leading to release of product from secretory lumen into duct system
What are the names of the layers of the eyeball?
fibrous tunic, uveal tract and retina
What are the parts of the fibrous tunic of the eyeball?
cornea and sclera