Arthrology of the anterior thorax Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Arthrology of the anterior thorax Deck (70):
1

How many primary centers of ossification appear in the corpus sterni?

typically 6

2

In what part of the sternum will a secondary enter of ossification appear?

the xiphoid process

3

In what part of the rib will primary centers of ossification appear?

the body (corpus, shaft)

4

In what parts of the rib will secondary centers of ossification appear?

the head, articular surface of the tubercle and the non-articular surface of the tubercle

5

Which ribs will demonstrate secondary centers of ossification?

ribs 1-10

6

Which rib lacks secondary centers of ossification?

ribs 11 and 12

7

Which ribs demonstrate three secondary centers of ossification?

ribs 2-9

8

Which ribs have only two secondary centers of ossification?

ribs 1 and 10

9

How does rib 1 differ in ossification centers from typical ribs?

rib 1 has two secondary centers of ossification: one for the head and one for the tubercle; typical ribs have three secondary centers of ossification

10

What are the four subclassifications of synarthrosis joints based on Latin grouping?

suture, gomphosis, schindylesis and syndesmosis

11

What were the five types of suture based on Latin grouping?

serrate, denticulate, limbous, squamous and harmonia

12

What are the characteristics of sutura vera (true sutures)?

sutures demonstrating interlocking of the adjacent bone surfaces; typically formed by intramembranous ossification

13

What are the characteristics of sutura notha (false sutures)?

sutures lacking interlocking of adjacent bone surfaces; typically formed by endochondral ossification

14

Which sutures demonstrate non-interlock, but will overlap at their edges?

squamous sutures

15

What were the classifications of sutura notha (false sutures) based on Latin grouping?

squamous and harmonia

16

What re the typical examples of the plane suture or harmonia suture?

cruciate suture made up of the intermaxillary, interpalatine and palto-maxillary sutures

17

What are the examples of the schindylesis type of suture?

sphenoid - ethmoid - vomer articulation, the palatine - maxilla - vomer articulation

18

What are the examples of the gomphosis joint?

maxilla - root of tooth; mandible - root of tooth

19

What are the five views of the skull called?

norma verticalis, norma fronta;is, norma occipitalis, norma lateralis, norma basalis

20

What is the diamond shaped remnant of developing membrane bone at the intersection of the frontal bone with both parietal bones?

the anterior fontanelle

21

What is the diamond shaped remnant of developing membrane bone at the intersection of the occipital bone with both parietal bones?

the posterior fontanelle

22

What is the norma frontalis?

the skull is viewed from the front

23

What is the name given to the outline of the nasal cavity at the front of the skull?

piriform aperture

24

What is the name given to the alveolar jugum of the canine tooth in the maxilla?

cnine eminence

25

What forms a bullet-like chin?

a large mental protuberance

26

What forms an indented chin?

well developed bilateral mental tubercles and a slight mental protuberance

27

What is the appearance of suture intersections just above the zygomatic arch called?

the pterion

28

what bones form the pterion?

parietal, temporal, sphenoid and frontal

29

What points on the skull re used to measure the skull size?

the nasion, vertex, inion and gnathion

30

What points on the skull are used to measure cranial vault capacity?

the nasion, vertex and inion

31

the olfactory nerve exits the cranial vault via what opening?

cribiform plate of the ethmoid

32

What are the contents of the optic canal?

the optic nerve and opthalmic artery

33

What are the contents of the superior orbital fissure?

the opthalmic veins, the oculomotor nerve, the troclear nerve, the opthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve, and the middle meningeal artery

34

What forms the roof of the posterior cranial fossa?

the tentorium cerebelli

35

What part of the cerebrum occupies the posterior cranial fossa?

none; the tentorium cerebelli separates the cerebrum into a space above the posterior cranial fossa

36

What part of the central nerve system occupies the posterior cranial fossa?

the cerebellum, pons, and the medulla oblongata

37

What are the contents of the internal acoustic meatus?

cranial nerves VII (facial nerve) and VIII (vestibulocochlear/auditory nerve), the nervus intermedius/nerve of Wrisberg/sensory roof of VII and the motor root of VII, the vestibular and cochlear roots of VII and the internal auditory/internal labyrinthine artery and vein

38

What are the contents of the jugular foramen?

the jugular bulb, the inferior petrosal sinus, the tympanic body/tympanic glomus or jugular glomus, cranial nerves IX (glossopharyngeal), X (vagus) and XI (spinal accessory)

39

What can the five layers of the scalp spell?

Skin, Connective tissue, Aponeurosis, Loose Connective Tissue, Periosteum . . . SCALP

40

What are the principal sources of blood to the scalp?

internal carotid and external carotid artery branches

41

Which division of the trigeminal nerve receive sensory information from the scalp?

all 3 divisions: opthalmic nerve, maxillary nerve, & mandibular nerve

42

Which ventral rami branches supply the scalp?

greater auricular and lesser occipital scalp?

43

Which dorsal ramus nerve branch ( name and cord level of origin) supplies the scalp?

greater occipital nerve - C2, C3 communicating ramus

44

Which muscles lack any attachment to bone?

orbicularis oris, procerus & risorius

45

What type of motor fibers to skeletal muscles innervated by the facial nerve?

branchial efferent (BE)

46

Most of the seventh cranial nerve will exit the skull via what opening?

the stylomastoid foramen

47

the optic canal is located along which wall of the orbit?

superior wall of the orbit

48

What are the contents of the optic canal?

optic nerve & opthalmic artery

49

What are the openings located along the medial wall of the orbit?

anterior ethmoid and posterior ethmoid foramina

50

What is the name given to the medial wall of the orbit?

lamina papyracea

51

The superior orbital fissure is located along which wall of the orbit?

lateral wall of the orbit

52

What re the contents of the superior orbital fissure?

oculomotor, trochlear and abducent/abducens cranial nerves
opthalmic division of the trigeminal cranial nerve and opthalmic veins

53

What opening(s) are located along the inferior wall of the orbit?

inferior orbital fissure

54

What is contained in the inferior orbital fissure?

maxillary division of trigeminal nerve

55

What are the names given to the modified sebaceous gland in the tarsus of the eyelid?

tarsal or Meidbomian gland

56

What is the name given to the blind sac formed between the palpebral and bulbar conjuctiva?

the superior or inferior fornix

57

What is the name given to the angle formed between the superior and inferior eyelids at their medial and lateral margins?

canthus

58

What is the canthus?

the angle formed between the upper and lower eyelids at the medial and lateral margins

59

What is an/a epicanthus/epicanthal fold/palpebronasal fold, Mongolian fold?

tissue forming the rounded margin of the medial canthus

60

What specific pathways are identified with Visceral Efferent (VE) innervation?

sympathetic and parasympathetic motor pathways

61

How many neurons are involved in the Visceral Efferent pathways from CNS to target cell?

two motor neurons

62

What is the location for the second neuron in the Visceral Efferent (VE) pathway?

typically a ganglion

63

Which cranial nerves are involved in the Visceral Efferent (VE) parasympathetic pathway to the lacrimal gland?

facial and trigeminal (maxillary and opthalmic division/branches)

64

What is the origin for the sympathetic pathway to the lacrimal gland?

lateral horn/intermediolateral cell column T1,T2

65

What is the target of the preganglionic sympathetic visceral efferent (VE) fiber in the pathway to the lacrimal gland?

the VE fiber ascends to the superior cervical ganglion to synapse

66

Sympathetic stimulation of the lacrimal gland will result in what events?

vasoconstriction of blood vessels, limited availability of water to secretory units, move viscous or thicker product formed in glandular lumen

67

Parasympathetic stimulation of targets in the lacrimal gland will result in what events?

vasodilation of blood vessels, increased availability of water to secretory units, thinner or more watery product in lumen;
constriction of myoepithelial cells leading to release of product from secretory lumen into duct system

68

What are the names of the layers of the eyeball?

fibrous tunic, uveal tract and retina

69

What are the parts of the fibrous tunic of the eyeball?

cornea and sclera

70

How many primary centers of ossification appear in the manubrium?

1-3 centers have been identified