Cervical region - Atlas/C1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cervical region - Atlas/C1 Deck (38):
1

What is the name of the first cervical vertebrae?

atlas

2

What features are lacking at C1?

vertebral body, pedicles, a spinous process and the intervertebral disc

3

What muscles attaches to the anterior arch of C1?

longus colli

4

What ligaments will attach to the anterior arch of C1?

the anterior longitudinal, anterior atlanto-occipital and anterior atlanto-axial ligaments

5

What is observed on the back of the anterior arch of C1?

the fovea dentis

6

What is the morphology of the superior articular facet of C1?

they are elliptical, close together in front and often demonstrate an elevation subdividing the facet surface into two separate surfaces

7

what is the orientation of the superior articular facet of C1?

backward, upward, medial (BUM)

8

What are the morphological characteristics of the inferior articular facet of C1?

asymmertical, slightly concave or flattened

9

What is the orientation of the inferior articular facet of C1?

backward, medial, downward (BMD)

10

What muscles attach to the lateral mass of C1?

levator scapula, splenius vervicis and rectus capitis anterior

11

What attaches to the posterior tubercle of the posterior arch of C1?

rectus capitis posterior minor muscle and ligamentum nuchae

12

What superior surface modifications of the posterior arch of C1 are present?

groove/sulcus for the vertebral artery and arcuate rim

13

What attaches to ther arcuate rim of C1?

the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament

14

Ossification of the free margin of the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament results in which atypical bone classification?

accessory bone

15

What is the earliest age of development where ossification of the anterior free margin of the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament was observed?

about age 7 years old

16

What may be formed by ossification of the anterior free margin of the posterior atalanto-occipital ligament?

a partial ponticulus posticus or complete ponticulus posticus

17

What forms the types of ponticulus posticus?

ossification of the anterior free margin of the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament

18

What other names may be used to identify a ponticulus posticus?

Kimmerle's anomaly

19

What names are given to the opening formed by the ponticulus posticus??

arcuate foramen or retroarticular canal

20

Ponticulus posticus has observed in what ethnic populations?

all ethnic populations studied thus far

21

What is the general range of incidence of ponticulus posticus in the populations studied?

1%-41%

22

What is the gender bias now associated with ponticulus posticus?

female

23

What joint classification(s) may be observed on the posterior artch of C1?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint

24

What are the osseous parts of the transverse process of C1?

costal element, posterior tubercle, true transverse process

25

What osseous parts of the transverse process are absent at C1?

anterior tubercle and costotransverse bar

26

What muscles attach to the transverse process of C1?

rectus capitis anterior, rectus capitis lateralis, middle scalene, levator scapula, splenius cervicis, obliquus capitis superior, obliquus capitis inferior and intertransversarii muscles

27

What suboccipital muscles are known to have fascial projections attaching to the spinal dura?

rectus capitis posterior minor, rectus capitis posterior major, obliquus capitis inferior

28

What are the connections between subocciptal muscles and the spinal dura called?

myodural bridges

29

What are the lateral bridges of atlas connected to?

the lateral mass and the ytransverse process of atlas

30

What opening is identified when a complete lateral bridge is formed

the retrotransverse foramen

31

What are the possible contents of the retrotransverse foramen?

the vertebral artery, a branch from the suboccipital nerve and veins communicating with the venous sinuses of the neck

32

Which of the ponticles (bridges) of atlas is only observed in humans?

lateral bridges

33

What is observed in the transverse foramen of C1?

vertebral artery, vertebral venous plexus, postganglionic sympathetic motor nerve fibers

34

What is the gender variation for measurements of the transverse diameter of C1?

males 78 millimeters and females: 72 millimeters

35

What is the distance from the posterior tubercle of the transverse process of C1 to the skin for each gender?

a little over 30 millimeters for both male and females

36

What joint classifications are observed at C1?

fibrous (amphiarthosis) syndesmosis joint, synovial (diarthrosis) ellipsoidal joint, synovial pivot (diarthosis trochoid) joint and synovial plane (diarthosis arthodia) joint

37

How many synovial joint surfaces are observed at C1?

five

38

What synovial joint surfaces are observed at C1?

two superior articular facets, two inferior articular facets and the fovea dentis