Cervical Region Flashcards Preview

spinal anatomy > Cervical Region > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cervical Region Deck (62):
0

Which mammals have more than seven cervical vertebrae?

ant bear, three-toed sloth

1

Which mammals have less than seven cervical vertebrae?

two-toed sloth, manatee

2

What is the umber of vertebrae in the typical cervical spine?

seven segments

3

Which vertebrae are atypical cervicals?

C1, C2, C7

4

What is the shape of the typical cervical vertebral body from the cranial view?

rectangular

5

What is the appearance of the typical cervical vertebral body from the lateral view?

posterior height is greater than anterior height by a few millimeters

6

What would be the direction of the cervical curved based on osseous features?

posterior or kyphotic

7

What accounts for the direction of the typical cervical curve?

the intervertebral disc height

8

at which vertebral couple will the cervical curve again increase intervertebral disc height?

C5/C6

9

What is the direction of the typical cervical curve?

anterior or lordotic

10

What is the effect of aging on the cervical vertebral body?

it diminishes the overall height of the vertebral body

11

what are the modifications of the superior epiphyseal rim of a typical cervical?

anterior groove, posterior groove, right and left uncinate processes

12

What are the names of the lateral modification of the superior epiphyseal rim?

unicinate process, unciform process, uncovertebral process, uncus or lateral lip

13

What are the modifications of the inferior epiphyseal rim of a typical cervical?

anterior lip, posterior lip, right and left lateral grooves

14

At what developmental age will the uncinate process first be observed?

3rd -4th fetal month

15

What are the names given to the lateral modifications of the inferior epiphyseal rim?

lateral groove or enchancrure

16

What is the joint classification for the anterior lip-anterior groove articulation?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis

17

What is the joint classification for the posterior lip-posterior groove articulation?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis

18

What is the joint classification for the uncinate process-lateral groove articulation??

modified synovial saddle (diarthrosis sellar)

19

How many joint surfaces are present on the upper surface of a typical cervical vertebral body?

five

20

What is the joint classification for the spongy bone-intervertebral disc articulation?

cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis

22

How many joint surfaces are present on the lower surface of a typical cervical vertebral body?

five

22

How many synovial joint surfaces are present on the vertebral body of a typical cervical?

four

23

how many joint surface are present on the vertebral body of a typical cervical?

ten

24

What other term is used to identify the lateral groove?

enchancrure

25

What is the name given to the uncinate process-lateral groove articulation?

joint of Luschka or uncovertebral joint

26

What is the functional significance of the joint of Luschka?

it appears to stabilize the intervertebral disc while accommodating flexion - extension and requiring coupled motion (axial rotation with lateral bending) in the cervical spine

27

What does the recent literature suggest as to the nature of the joint of Luschka?

the joint is representative of intervertebral disc aging, which results in loss of lamellar integrity near the joint

28

What muscle attaches to the typical cervical vertebral body?

the longus colli muscle

29

What is the orientation and angulation of the pedicle of a typical cervical

posterolateral, 45 degrees

30

At what location on the vertebral body of a typical cervical will the pedicle attach?

to the side and in the center of the vertebral body

31

what surface feature is located at the upper margin of the pedicle?

superior vertebral notch

32

the joint of Luschka is formed from what surfaces?

the uncinate process and lateral groove

33

The greatest transverse diameter of the typical cervical vertebrae occurs at ???

C6

34

The greatest frequency of osteophytes associated with the vertebral body occurs at which typical cervical vertebral couple?

C5/C6

35

List, in order, the osseous parts of the typical vertebra transverse process beginning at the vertebral body.

costal element, anterior tubercle, costotransverse bar, posterior tubercle, true transverse process

36

what muscles will attach to the anterior tubercle of a typical cervical vertebra?

anterior scalene, longus capitis, longus colli, anterior intertransversarii

37

What muscles may attach to the posterior tubercle of a typical vertebra?

splenius cervicis, iliocostalis cervicis, levator scapula, middle scalene, posterior scalene, rotators and posterior intertransversarii

38

what muscles will attach to the costotransverse bar?

middle scalene and posterior intertransversarii

39

What is the name given to the superior margin of the costotransverse bar?

sulcus for the ventral primary ramus of a cervical spinal nerve

40

What is the orientation and angulation of a typical cervical transverse process?

60 degrees anterolaterally (from midsagittal plane), 15 degrees inferiorly (from the horizontal plane)

41

What is the name given to the modification of the anterior tubercle of the C6 transverse process?

the carotid tubercle

42

What will cause remodeling of the anterior tubercle at C6?

the common carotid artery

44

What will occupy the typical cervical vertebra transverse foramen?

the vertebral artery, vertebral venous plexus and postganglionic sympathetic motor nerve fibers

45

What nerve indents the articular pillar of typical cervical vertebra?

the medial branch of the dorsal ramus of a cervical spinal nerve

46

What is the classic angulation of typical cervical articular facets?

40 to 45 degrees from the coronal plane

47

Recent work suggest what angulation for typical cervical articular facets?

55 to 60 degrees

48

What is the orientation of the typical cervical superior articular facet?

backward, upward, medial (BUM)

49

What is the orientation of the typical cervical inferior articular facet?

forward, lateral, downward (FoLD)

50

What muscles will attach to typical cervical articular processes?

the longissimus capitis, longissimus cervicis, semispinalis capitis, semispinalis cervicis, multifidis and rotators

51

What muscles blend with the capsular ligament of cervical zygapophyses?

the semispinalis capitis, multifidis and rotator longus

52

What is the joint classification for the typical cervical zygapophysis?

synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodial) joint

53

what modifications of the synovial joint are observed in the cervical spine?

meniscoidal folds

54

What function will meniscoidal folds provide in cervical zygapophyses?

they are assumed to distribute pressure across the joint surface

55

What will influence spinal kinematics?

geometry of articular facets, mechanical properties of connective tissue, mechanical properties of muscle

56

what should be carefully considered when applying research results to a population?

the condition of the subject material (fresh cadaver, fixed cadaver, living subject)
the age range of the population studied
the method of measurement (X-ray, goniometer, MRI, CT, etc.)

57

The greatest range of flexion- extension among the typical cervical vertebrae occurs at which vertebral couple?

typically C5/C6

58

What motions are coupled in the cervical spine?

lateral bending and axial rotation

59

Ranges of coupled motion among the typical cervical vertebrae will begin to decrease at what cervical vertebral couple?

the C5/C6 vertebral couple

60

What is the usual condition for the Caucasian typical cervical spinous process?

they are bifid

61

What is the usual condition for the African-American typical cervical spinous process?

they are non-bifid

62

What muscles may attach to the typical cervical spinous process?

the spinalis cervicis, semispinalis cervicis, semispinalis thoracis, multifidis, rotators and interspinalis