Flashcards in Cervical Region Deck (62):
Which mammals have more than seven cervical vertebrae?
ant bear, three-toed sloth
Which mammals have less than seven cervical vertebrae?
two-toed sloth, manatee
What is the umber of vertebrae in the typical cervical spine?
Which vertebrae are atypical cervicals?
C1, C2, C7
What is the shape of the typical cervical vertebral body from the cranial view?
What is the appearance of the typical cervical vertebral body from the lateral view?
posterior height is greater than anterior height by a few millimeters
What would be the direction of the cervical curved based on osseous features?
posterior or kyphotic
What accounts for the direction of the typical cervical curve?
the intervertebral disc height
at which vertebral couple will the cervical curve again increase intervertebral disc height?
What is the direction of the typical cervical curve?
anterior or lordotic
What is the effect of aging on the cervical vertebral body?
it diminishes the overall height of the vertebral body
what are the modifications of the superior epiphyseal rim of a typical cervical?
anterior groove, posterior groove, right and left uncinate processes
What are the names of the lateral modification of the superior epiphyseal rim?
unicinate process, unciform process, uncovertebral process, uncus or lateral lip
What are the modifications of the inferior epiphyseal rim of a typical cervical?
anterior lip, posterior lip, right and left lateral grooves
At what developmental age will the uncinate process first be observed?
3rd -4th fetal month
What are the names given to the lateral modifications of the inferior epiphyseal rim?
lateral groove or enchancrure
What is the joint classification for the anterior lip-anterior groove articulation?
fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis
What is the joint classification for the posterior lip-posterior groove articulation?
fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis
What is the joint classification for the uncinate process-lateral groove articulation??
modified synovial saddle (diarthrosis sellar)
How many joint surfaces are present on the upper surface of a typical cervical vertebral body?
What is the joint classification for the spongy bone-intervertebral disc articulation?
cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis
How many joint surfaces are present on the lower surface of a typical cervical vertebral body?
How many synovial joint surfaces are present on the vertebral body of a typical cervical?
how many joint surface are present on the vertebral body of a typical cervical?
What other term is used to identify the lateral groove?
What is the name given to the uncinate process-lateral groove articulation?
joint of Luschka or uncovertebral joint
What is the functional significance of the joint of Luschka?
it appears to stabilize the intervertebral disc while accommodating flexion - extension and requiring coupled motion (axial rotation with lateral bending) in the cervical spine
What does the recent literature suggest as to the nature of the joint of Luschka?
the joint is representative of intervertebral disc aging, which results in loss of lamellar integrity near the joint
What muscle attaches to the typical cervical vertebral body?
the longus colli muscle
What is the orientation and angulation of the pedicle of a typical cervical
posterolateral, 45 degrees
At what location on the vertebral body of a typical cervical will the pedicle attach?
to the side and in the center of the vertebral body
what surface feature is located at the upper margin of the pedicle?
superior vertebral notch
the joint of Luschka is formed from what surfaces?
the uncinate process and lateral groove
The greatest transverse diameter of the typical cervical vertebrae occurs at ???
The greatest frequency of osteophytes associated with the vertebral body occurs at which typical cervical vertebral couple?
List, in order, the osseous parts of the typical vertebra transverse process beginning at the vertebral body.
costal element, anterior tubercle, costotransverse bar, posterior tubercle, true transverse process
what muscles will attach to the anterior tubercle of a typical cervical vertebra?
anterior scalene, longus capitis, longus colli, anterior intertransversarii
What muscles may attach to the posterior tubercle of a typical vertebra?
splenius cervicis, iliocostalis cervicis, levator scapula, middle scalene, posterior scalene, rotators and posterior intertransversarii
what muscles will attach to the costotransverse bar?
middle scalene and posterior intertransversarii
What is the name given to the superior margin of the costotransverse bar?
sulcus for the ventral primary ramus of a cervical spinal nerve
What is the orientation and angulation of a typical cervical transverse process?
60 degrees anterolaterally (from midsagittal plane), 15 degrees inferiorly (from the horizontal plane)
What is the name given to the modification of the anterior tubercle of the C6 transverse process?
the carotid tubercle
What will cause remodeling of the anterior tubercle at C6?
the common carotid artery
What will occupy the typical cervical vertebra transverse foramen?
the vertebral artery, vertebral venous plexus and postganglionic sympathetic motor nerve fibers
What nerve indents the articular pillar of typical cervical vertebra?
the medial branch of the dorsal ramus of a cervical spinal nerve
What is the classic angulation of typical cervical articular facets?
40 to 45 degrees from the coronal plane
Recent work suggest what angulation for typical cervical articular facets?
55 to 60 degrees
What is the orientation of the typical cervical superior articular facet?
backward, upward, medial (BUM)
What is the orientation of the typical cervical inferior articular facet?
forward, lateral, downward (FoLD)
What muscles will attach to typical cervical articular processes?
the longissimus capitis, longissimus cervicis, semispinalis capitis, semispinalis cervicis, multifidis and rotators
What muscles blend with the capsular ligament of cervical zygapophyses?
the semispinalis capitis, multifidis and rotator longus
What is the joint classification for the typical cervical zygapophysis?
synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodial) joint
what modifications of the synovial joint are observed in the cervical spine?
What function will meniscoidal folds provide in cervical zygapophyses?
they are assumed to distribute pressure across the joint surface
What will influence spinal kinematics?
geometry of articular facets, mechanical properties of connective tissue, mechanical properties of muscle
what should be carefully considered when applying research results to a population?
the condition of the subject material (fresh cadaver, fixed cadaver, living subject)
the age range of the population studied
the method of measurement (X-ray, goniometer, MRI, CT, etc.)
The greatest range of flexion- extension among the typical cervical vertebrae occurs at which vertebral couple?
What motions are coupled in the cervical spine?
lateral bending and axial rotation
Ranges of coupled motion among the typical cervical vertebrae will begin to decrease at what cervical vertebral couple?
the C5/C6 vertebral couple
What is the usual condition for the Caucasian typical cervical spinous process?
they are bifid
What is the usual condition for the African-American typical cervical spinous process?
they are non-bifid