Arthrology of the vertebral column Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Arthrology of the vertebral column Deck (62):
1

What is the maximum number of common ligaments identified with a vertebral couple?

eight

2

What is the reason that nine common ligaments are identified by only eight will be attached at any specific vertebral couple?

the ligamentum nuchae and supraspinous ligaments attach to the spinous tubercles, but only one of these will be identified at a single vertebral couple

3

What is the number of true intervertebral discs identified in the adult?

twenty-three

4

In the adult, which vertebral levels will demonstrate a true intervertebral disc?

those between C2 and S1 inclusive

5

What is the percent of intervertebral disc height contribution to the length of each region of the vertebral column?

cervical. . . . 22-25%; thoracic. . . . 20%; Lumbar . . . . 33%

6

What are the names of the central, peripheral, and horizontal zones of the intervertebral disc?

nucleus pusposus. . . central zone; annulus fribrosus . . . peripheral zone; cartilaginous end plate. . . horizontal zone

7

What is the water concentration in the lumbar nucleus pulposus at birth and after thirty?

birth . . . . 88%; thirty. . . . . 70%

8

What is the consequence of non-aggregated glycosaminoglycans in the lumbar nucleus pulposus?

the nucleus pulposus will loose water under deformation conditions

9

Which type of collagen is dominant in the nucleus pulposus?

collagen type II

10

What is the organizational pattern for collagen fibers in the nucleus pulposus??

They are irregularly oriented and randomly scattered

11

What is the appearance of the cervical annulus fibrosus?

a horse-shoe with the anterior margin thick and the lateral margins tapering to the uncinate processes; the posterior margin is thin

12

What compensates for the thinness of the posterior part of the cervical annulus fibrosus?

posterior longitudinal ligament

13

What is the organization of the lumbar annulus fibrosus?

it has 12-14 concentric cylindrical lamellae

14

What is the water concentration in the lumbar annulus fibrosus at birth and after thirty?

birth . . . . 78%; thirty . . . 70%

15

What is the organizational pattern for glycosaminoglycans in the lumbar annulus fibrosus?

they typically have a binding site for hyaluronic acid and are thus aggregated

16

Which type of collgaen is dominant in the annulus fibrosus?

collagen type 1

17

What is the organizational pattern for collagen fibers in the annulus fibrosus?

they are parallel with one another in a single lamellus and angled

18

what is the organization of collagen fibers between lamellae?

collagen fivers will be angled in the opposite direction such that a spiral - counterspiral organization is observed

19

What is the attachment site for collagen fivers within the annulus fibrosus?

collagen fivers of the outer lamellae will become Sharpey's fibers and penetrate the epiphyseal rims; collagen fibers of the inner lamellae will attach to the catilaginous end plate

20

What is the origin for the cells of the annulus fibrosus?

sclerotomites

21

How does the intervertebral disc have attachment to the vertebral body?

Sharpey's fibers from the outer lamellae of the annulus fibrosus are firmly embedded into the epiphyseal rims of the adjacent vertebral bodies

22

How does the intervertebral disc attach to the vertebral body?

Sharpey's fibers from he outer lamellae of the annulus fibroses are firmly embedded into the epiphyseal rims of the adjacent vertebral bodies

23

Based on histology, what is the classification of the intervertebral disc?

a cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis

24

What are the divisions of the embryonic somite?

the sclerotome, myotome, and dermatome

25

What structure is formed following migration of sclerotomes to surround the notochord?

the perichordal blastema

26

What is formed within the perichordal blastema between the sclerotomites?

the intrasclerotomal fissure or fissure of von ebner

27

What does the intrasclerotomal fissure or fissure of von ebner become?

the perichordal disc

28

What will the dense sclerotomite become?

the upper part of the vertebral segment forming below

29

What structure forms following migration and subsequent mixing of the sclerotomites?

the vertebral blastema

30

What part of the intervertebral disc will the notochord form?

the nucleus pulposus

31

What part of the intervertebral disc will the perichordal disc form?

the annulus fibrosus

32

What is the earliest indicator of the position of the adult intervertebral disc?

the intrasclerotomal fissure or fissure of von ebner

33

What vertebral levels will the anterior longitudinal ligament attach to ?

those between occiput and S3 inclusive are traditionally indicated

34

What is the lowest extent of the anterior longitudinal ligament based on recent studies?

L3

35

What is believed to form the anterior longitudinal ligament in the lumbar spine?

the tendon of the crura of the diaphragm

36

What innervates the anterior longitudinal ligament?

the anterior neural plexus formed by fibers from the ventral primary ramus and sympathetic postganglionic fibers from the paravertebral ganglia

37

What is the function of the anterior longitudinal ligament?

it brakes or limits dorsi-flexion or hyperflexion of the vertebral column

38

What was ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament in the lumbar region identified as?

Forestier's Disease

39

What is the ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament in the lumbar region now identified as?

Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis or DISH

40

What is the innermost layer of the posterior longitudinal ligament called?

the perivertebral ligament

41

What is the function of the posterior longitudinal ligament?

it brakes or limits flexion of the vertebral column

42

Where is ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament commonly identified?

the cervical spine with an 80% incidicence

43

What is the clinical sign of posterior longitudinal ligament ossification in the cervical spine?

a loss of hand and finger dexterity

44

What is the clinical sign of posterior longitudinal ligament ossification in the lumbar spine?

faltering gait

45

What is the gender, age, and ethnic bias associated with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament?

it is greater in males over 50 and has a higher incidence in the Japanese

46

What is the name given to the ligamentum flavum based on appearance and histology?

it is yellow elastic ligament

47

What fibers are most ligaments made up of?

Collagen type I fibers which are whitish in appearance

48

What is the color of most ligaments in the body?

they are whitish

49

Where is ossification of the ligamentum flavum most commonly identified?

the thoracic spine or thoracolumbar transition zone

50

What is the relationship between the capsular ligament and mobility?

the more lax/loose the capsular ligament is, the greater motion of the joint

51

What regions of the vertebral column demonstrates the greatest laxity of capsular ligaments?

the cervical and lumbar regions

52

In which region of the vertebral column will the capsular ligament be tightest?

the thoracic region

53

What layers are present in the capsular ligament?

a superficial layer of collagen fibers and a deep layer of elastic fibers

54

If the zygapophyseal capsular ligament is not significantly involved in restricting motion what is its function?

it s probably involved in propioceptive feedback to the muscles stabilizing the vertebral couple during movement

55

What is now thought to be a major function of the interspinous ligament?

it is more likely a propioceptive transducer for the spinal reflex

56

What is the name given to the superficial layer of the ligamentum nuchae?

the funicular layer or part

57

What is the name given to the deep layer of the ligamentum nuchae?

the lamellar layer or part

58

What are the attachment sites for the superficial layer of the ligamentum nuchae?

the external occipitial protuberance, external occipital crest, and spinous tubercle of C7

59

What is the histological make-up of the human ligamentum nuchae?

it is a yellow elastic ligament, but has more collagen fibers than in quadrupeds

60

What is the classic function of the human ligamentum nuchae?

it brakes or limits flexion of the cervical spine

61

What is the termination level inferiorly for the supraspinous ligament according to current literature?

primarily at L4 (73%); between L4 and L5 (5%)

62

What is ow thought to be a major function of the supraspinous ligament?

it is a propioceptive transduceer for the spinal reflex