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Flashcards in Arthrology of the vertebral column Deck (62)
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1

What is the maximum number of common ligaments identified with a vertebral couple?

eight

2

What is the reason that nine common ligaments are identified by only eight will be attached at any specific vertebral couple?

the ligamentum nuchae and supraspinous ligaments attach to the spinous tubercles, but only one of these will be identified at a single vertebral couple

3

What is the number of true intervertebral discs identified in the adult?

twenty-three

4

In the adult, which vertebral levels will demonstrate a true intervertebral disc?

those between C2 and S1 inclusive

5

What is the percent of intervertebral disc height contribution to the length of each region of the vertebral column?

cervical. . . . 22-25%; thoracic. . . . 20%; Lumbar . . . . 33%

6

What are the names of the central, peripheral, and horizontal zones of the intervertebral disc?

nucleus pusposus. . . central zone; annulus fribrosus . . . peripheral zone; cartilaginous end plate. . . horizontal zone

7

What is the water concentration in the lumbar nucleus pulposus at birth and after thirty?

birth . . . . 88%; thirty. . . . . 70%

8

What is the consequence of non-aggregated glycosaminoglycans in the lumbar nucleus pulposus?

the nucleus pulposus will loose water under deformation conditions

9

Which type of collagen is dominant in the nucleus pulposus?

collagen type II

10

What is the organizational pattern for collagen fibers in the nucleus pulposus??

They are irregularly oriented and randomly scattered

11

What is the appearance of the cervical annulus fibrosus?

a horse-shoe with the anterior margin thick and the lateral margins tapering to the uncinate processes; the posterior margin is thin

12

What compensates for the thinness of the posterior part of the cervical annulus fibrosus?

posterior longitudinal ligament

13

What is the organization of the lumbar annulus fibrosus?

it has 12-14 concentric cylindrical lamellae

14

What is the water concentration in the lumbar annulus fibrosus at birth and after thirty?

birth . . . . 78%; thirty . . . 70%

15

What is the organizational pattern for glycosaminoglycans in the lumbar annulus fibrosus?

they typically have a binding site for hyaluronic acid and are thus aggregated

16

Which type of collgaen is dominant in the annulus fibrosus?

collagen type 1

17

What is the organizational pattern for collagen fibers in the annulus fibrosus?

they are parallel with one another in a single lamellus and angled

18

what is the organization of collagen fibers between lamellae?

collagen fivers will be angled in the opposite direction such that a spiral - counterspiral organization is observed

19

What is the attachment site for collagen fivers within the annulus fibrosus?

collagen fivers of the outer lamellae will become Sharpey's fibers and penetrate the epiphyseal rims; collagen fibers of the inner lamellae will attach to the catilaginous end plate

20

What is the origin for the cells of the annulus fibrosus?

sclerotomites

21

How does the intervertebral disc have attachment to the vertebral body?

Sharpey's fibers from the outer lamellae of the annulus fibrosus are firmly embedded into the epiphyseal rims of the adjacent vertebral bodies

22

How does the intervertebral disc attach to the vertebral body?

Sharpey's fibers from he outer lamellae of the annulus fibroses are firmly embedded into the epiphyseal rims of the adjacent vertebral bodies

23

Based on histology, what is the classification of the intervertebral disc?

a cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis

24

What are the divisions of the embryonic somite?

the sclerotome, myotome, and dermatome

25

What structure is formed following migration of sclerotomes to surround the notochord?

the perichordal blastema

26

What is formed within the perichordal blastema between the sclerotomites?

the intrasclerotomal fissure or fissure of von ebner

27

What does the intrasclerotomal fissure or fissure of von ebner become?

the perichordal disc

28

What will the dense sclerotomite become?

the upper part of the vertebral segment forming below

29

What structure forms following migration and subsequent mixing of the sclerotomites?

the vertebral blastema

30

What part of the intervertebral disc will the notochord form?

the nucleus pulposus