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Year 3 Human Disease > ATLS > Flashcards

Flashcards in ATLS Deck (14):
1

what is more important- airway or cervical spine and why

airways
people die from hypoxia, rarely from spinal damage

2

5 steps to control airway

-lift chin (dont tilt head, may damage cervical spine)
-jaw thrust
-oropharyngeal suctioning
-manually move tongue forward
-maintain cervical immobilisation but not at cost of airway

3

options for intubation, considerations of each

-nasotracheal intubation: bad, nasocranial intubation/ nasal haemorrhage
-rapid sequence intubation:difficult
-awake intubation with benzodiazapine sedation (good)
-fibre-optic intubation if available
-percutaneous transtracheal ventilation
-retrograde intubation
-last resort: cricothyroidotomy

4

where to insert for tracheostomy/ cricothyroidotomy
which is preferable?

cricothyroid membrane
tracheostomy preferable

5

5 principles of trauma management

-primary survey: ABCDE + cervical spine
-secondary survey: examine whole body
-treat life-threatening conditions as they arise
-stabilise
-transfer

6

what does ABCDE stand for

Airways
Breathing
Circulation
Disability
Exposure (of body to see wounds)

7

what is flail mandible

tongue and associated structures fall down, blocking airways (lifting chin prevents this)

8

where to insert chest drain

4th-5th intercostal spaces

9

how to manage
a. airway obstruction
b. tension pneumothorax
c. open pneumothorax
d. massive haemothrorax
e. flail chest
f. cardiac tamponade

a. airway obstruction: intubation/ surgical airway
b. tension pneumothorax: needle thoracocentesis
c. open pneumothorax: 3 sided dressing/ chest tube
d. massive haemothrorax: IV fluids/ chest drain
e. flail chest: analgesia
f. cardiac tamponade: pericardiocentesis (needle in to pericardium to aspirate blood)

10

what is cardiac tamponade

blood in pericardium --> heart cannot expand fully

11

what is flail chest

broken ribs stop chest expanding --> lungs collapse

12

5 common sites that blood goes following trauma

abdomen
pelvis
femur
chest cavity
floor

13

what is the leading cause of disability in young adult males

trauma

14

acute management of head injuries 5

-oxygen
-access glasgow coma scale GCS
-pupillary responsiveness
-posture
-glucose