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Year 3 Human Disease > Post op complications > Flashcards

Flashcards in Post op complications Deck (20):
1

4 interventions to improve surgical outcomes

-pre-op: info and optimise organ function
-stress reduction: regional anaesthesia, minimal invasive ops, normothermia, pharmacology
-pain relief, prophylaxis for nausea/ vomiting (anti emetic)
-modification of perioperative care: early mobilisation, minimal use of tubes/ drains/ catheters, oral nutrition

2

5 principle categories of surgical complications

-predisposed by concurrent disease
-anaesthesia (local and general)
-general complications of ops
-complications of any surgical condition
-complications of specific disorder

3

5 general complications of operation

-haemorrhage
-infection related to op site
-impaired healing
-surgical injury
-inadvertent operative trauma

4

3 complications of local anaesthesia;

-injection site (pain, haematoma, infection, delayed sensation)
-vasoconstrictors (ischaemic necrosis)
-systemic effects (allergy, toxicity)

5

8 complications of general anaesthesia

-direct trauma
-inherited disorders
-idiosyncratic allergic responses
-slow recovery
-awareness
-fluid balance
-hypothermia
-inadvertent trauma

6

2 types of haemorrhage

-early post-op
-late post-op (secondary haemorrhage)

7

4 infections related to op site

-minor wound infections
-wound cellulitis/ abscess
-gas gangrene
-late infective complications

8

5 respiratory complications

-atelectasis
-pneumonia/ bronchopneumonia
-aspiration pneumonitis
-aspiration pneumonia
-acute respiratory distress syndrome

9

2 causes of impaired healing

wound dehisence
incisional hernia

10

4 fluids/ electrolytes to monitor

sodium
potassium
urea
creatine

11

7 reasons to monitor fluids/ electrolytes

dehydration
overload
hyponatraemia
hypokalaemia
urinary retention
UTI
acute renal failure

12

5 ways to prevent pressure sores

-special bed surfaces to spread load
-relieving pressure on heels
-regular change of position
-regular checking of pressure areas
-management of incontinence

13

9 common post op problems

-pain
-pyrexia
-tachycardia
-cough, shortness of breath, tachypnoea
-collapse/ rapid deterioration
-nausea, vomiting
-disorders of bowel function
-poor urine output
-changes in mental state

14

types/ causes of pyrexia

infective: wound/ chest/ UT/ cannulation site infection
non-infective: transfusion reaction, DVT, haematoma, PE

15

4 causes of tachycardia

pain/ anxiety
infection
circulatory disturbance
arrythmia

16

poss causes of
a. overt shortness of breath SOB/ tachypnoea
b. shortness of breath
c. sudden onset SOB

poss causes of
a. overt shortness of breath SOB/ tachypnoea: pneumonia, broncho-pneumonia, aspiration, lobar collapse, pneumothorax
b. shortness of breath: atelectasis, abdominal distension, cardiac failure, fluid overload
c. sudden onset SOB: pulmonary embolus, adult respiratory distress, hyperventilation

17

7 causes of collapse/ rapid deterioration

hypovolaemic shock
systemic sepsis
MI
PE
hypoxia
CVA
drugs

18

4 causes of nausea/ vomiting

drugs
bowel obstruction
systemic disorders
haematemesis

19

8 causes of change in mental state

disorientation due to change in environment
dehydration
hyponatraemia
hypoxia (chest infection, heart failure)
UTI
drugs (opiates)
uraemia
hypoglycaemia

20

7 factors contributing to post op morbidity

pain
stress response/ organ dysfunction
nausea, vomiting, ileus
hypoxia, sleep disturbances
fatigue
immobilisation, semi starvation
drains/ nasogastric tubes, restrictions