respiratory tract infections Flashcards Preview

Year 3 Human Disease > respiratory tract infections > Flashcards

Flashcards in respiratory tract infections Deck (19):
1

*TABLE*
common cause of
a. upper RTIs
b. lower RTIs, pneumonia

a. upper RTIs: virus
b. lower RTIs, pneumonia: bacteria

2

name 2 life threatening URIs in children

acute epiglottitis
croup

3

what is the key symptom of these URIs in children

stridor (wheeze on inspiration)

4

why are these more dangerous in children than adults

smaller airways, easily blocked

5

which serious URI in children is now rare and why

acute epiglottitis, due to influenza vaccine

6

name lobes of L and R lung

L: upper and lower
R: upper, middle, lower

7

which bronchi is steeper and why

right, heart not in the way

8

what causes shadow on chest x ray in pneumonia

alveoli fill with organisms and inflammatory exudate --> consolidation

9

2 poss complications of pneumonia

impaired gas exchange (hypoxia)
bacteraemia

10

what can be used to identify organism responsible for pneumonia 4
pros/ cons of each

-sputum culture (high sensitivity, low specificity)
-blood culture (low sensitivity, high specificity)
-bronchoalveolar lavage/ percutaneous aspirate (rare)
-antibody titres (retrospective)

11

is tx for pneumonia usually started before or after organism is known

before

12

4 condtions that predispose to aspiration

-impaired consciousness (alcohol, seizures, GA)
-dysphagia (mechanical/ neurological)
-nasogastric and endotracheal tubes
-periodontal disease, gingivitis

13

describe bacterial flora of the mouth

90% anaerobes
10% aerobes- mainly gram positive cocci

14

name 4 types of pneumonia

community acquired
hospital acquired
aspiration
immunocompromised host

15

expected cure time for pneumonia

fever- few days
x ray- 4-6 weeks

16

what to suspect if pneumonia does not heal 3

-wrong antibiotic
-complication eg empyema, lung abscess
-additional underlying disease

17

tx of lung/ pleura abscess

drain

18

what is slowly resolving or recurrent pneumonia a sign of 3

-bronchogenic carcinoma
-myeloma
-unusual organisms caused by immunodeficiency eg P carinii in AIDS

19

Transfer to hospital if 4:

Transfer to hospital if 4:
-respiration rate >30/min
-cyanosis
-confusion
-hypotension (systolic BP