neurological weakness Flashcards Preview

Year 3 Human Disease > neurological weakness > Flashcards

Flashcards in neurological weakness Deck (21):
1

which part of the brain is involved in functional neuroanatomy

prefrontal cortex (motor cortex)

2

name large areas of motor homunclus

hands, mouth

3

6 disorders of neurological weakness

-tumour
-stroke
-MS
-bell's palsy
-motor neurone disease
-myaesthesia gravis

4

4 characterisations of upper motor neurone weakness

weakness
no wasting
increased muscle tone
no fasciculations

5

4 characterisations of lower motor neurone weakness

weakness
wasting
reduced muscle tone
fasciculations (visible spontaneous contractions)

6

pathology of disease that progresses to symptoms over
a. minutes-hours
b. days-weeks
c. weeks-months
d. months-years

a. minutes-hours: vascular
b. days-weeks:inflammation/ infection
c. weeks-months:tumour
d. months-years: degeneration

7

what are the four sets of muscles that should be tested for neurological weakness

-face/mouth: VII (facial)
-jaw/ chewing: V (trigeminal)
-tongue: XII (hypoglossal)
-swallowing: X(vagus) and IX (glossopharyngeal)

8

how to test each of these muscles

-face/mouth: VII (facial): smile
-jaw/ chewing: V (trigeminal): open your mouth
-tongue: XII (hypoglossal)
-swallowing: X(vagus) and IX (glossopharyngeal)

9

what is seen in neurological weakness of facial muscle 6

unilateral:
-brow droop
-upper lid retraction
-paralytic ectropion
-ptotic palpebral malar sulcus and nasojugal sulcus
-loss of nasolabial fold

10

difference in features of VII weakness in upper and lower motor neurone weakness

upper: pt can elevate both sides of forehead (stroke, tumour)
lower: cannot smile, close, eye fully, wrinkle ipsilateral forehead (bell's palsy)

11

sign of neurological weakness of CNV on testing (open your mouth)

jaw points towards weak side

12

sign of neurological weakness of CNXII on testing (stick out your tongue)

tongue points towards weak side

13

sign of neurological weakness of CNX on testing (swallow)

uvula points AWAY FROM weak side

14

what is bulbar palsy

Bulbar is Below
bilateral impairment of function of cranial nerve V, VII, X and XI (5,7,10,11) due to lower motor neurone lesion in medulla (or bilateral lesions of lower cranial nerves outside brainstem)

15

what is psuedobulbar palsy

bilateral impairment of function of cranial nerves 5,7,10,11 due to UPPER motor neuone lesions affecting cortical pathways to medulla

16

signs/ symptoms of
a. bulbar palsy
b. pseudobulbar palsy

a. bulbar palsy: dysphagia, difficulty chewing, nasal regurgitation, dysarthria, choking on liquid, nasal speech, dribbling, tongue atrophy/ fasciculations, weak soft palate)
b. pseudobulbar palsy: dysphagia, dysarthria, difficulty chewing, choking, uncontrollable laughing/crying, slow thick speech, small stiff tongue

17

sign of neurological weakness of CNXI on testing (say ahh)

cant say ahh (weak soft palate)

18

4 neurological weakness affecting upper motor neurone

stroke
multiple sclerosis
tumour
pseudobulbar palsy

19

3 neurological weaknesses affecting lower motor neurone

-peripheral neuropathy (eg diabetes, B12)
-bells palsy (CNVII)
-bulbar palsy (CN5,7,10,11)

20

name a neurological disease affecting NMJ

myasthenia gravis

21

diagnose:
no tongue wasting
no fasciculations
eye muscle weakness

myasthenia gravis (NMJ)