Principles of Operative Surgery Flashcards Preview

Year 3 Human Disease > Principles of Operative Surgery > Flashcards

Flashcards in Principles of Operative Surgery Deck (27):
1

ectomy

removal of an organ

2

orraphy

repair of tissues

3

ostomy

artificial communication between hollow viscous and the skin

4

otomy

cutting open

5

plasty

reconstruction

6

pexy

relocation

7

how should hair be removed alongside surgery?

only if necessary as infection increases

8

how to use skin prep/ operative drapes

0.5% chlorhexidine
or 10% povidone iodine with 70% alcohol
disposable, double thickness linen sheets

9

define...
oscopy

examination of hollow viscus

10

what are the 3 tissue layers

epidermis
dermis
hypodermis

11

difference between sharp and blunt dissection

sharp dissection: using scissors, scalpel etc
blunt dissection: cleaving soft tissues apart, eg using mosqiito forceps

12

what is diathermy

a medical and surgical technique involving the production of heat in a part of the body by high-frequency electric currents, to stimulate the circulation, relieve pain, destroy unhealthy tissue, or cause bleeding vessels to clot.

13

types of diathermy, describe each and potential problems

-monopolar (coagulation or cutting): charge in to patient and out through remote plate. BUT stimulates other muscles, nerves in pt at the same time
-bipolar: charge moves from 1 side of forceps to the other. much more common

14

3 main categories of suture and types of each

-absorbable: dexon (polygycolic acid), vicryl (polyglactin)
-slowly absorbed: PDS (polydioxanone)
-non-absorbable: silk, nylon, polypropylene

15

why is silk not often used for sutures

irritant

16

4 common skin closure techniques and when they're used

-simple uninterrupted: fine sutures on face
-vertical mattress sutures: large wounds, but leave scar
-skin staples
-subcuticular: most commonly used, look the best. secured at each end with a knot or bead

17

3 ways of approximating skin edges

-subcutaneous layer of absorbable suture
-undercutting of skin margins widely to apposition of edges of defect
-excision of wound end to eliminate dog ear when one side of wound is longer than the other

18

excision technique for excision of cyst

-incision beyond end of lesion
-plane of dissection around cyst by blunt dissection
-cyst removed intact with overlying skin

19

5 reasons to dress wounds

-maintain wound in warm moist state
-absorb bleeding/tissue fluid
-protect delicate healing tissue
-apply pressure to prevent haematoma
-conceal wounds from view

20

4 types of skin flaps

-random pattern flaps
-axial flaps (connected to blood vessels)
-myocutaneous flaps
-free flaps (move skin and blood vessels to new site)

21

5 things done in surgery involving infected tissues

-thorough cleaning of all foreign materials
-excision of non-viable tissues
-loose open packing
-inspection of wound under anaesthesia
-delayed primary closure

22

on what areas are skin grafts successful

well-vascularised non-infected tissue

23

where skin grafts often fail

-avascular wounds eg bone without periosteum, tendons with peritoneon, denuded cartilage
-heavy contamination with micro-organisms (infection)
-blood clot (but can survive on plasma)

24

what is a random pattern flap

no specific blood vessel in the pedicle being nourished via dermal plexus
2:1 ratio of length to width of base
can be used to cover local defect eg by rotation, advancement, transposition

25

principle of axial flaps

skin supplied by specific blood vessel and its accompanying venae comitans

26

principle of myocutaneous flaps

skin over muscle will survive if the pedicle to the muscle is not divided

27

when are microvascular free flaps used

autotransplant
tissue must survive on single pedicled blood supply with an artery and draining vein