Autonomic Nervous System Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology 2100 > Autonomic Nervous System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Autonomic Nervous System Deck (71):
1

what is the endocrine system

hormones released in the blood ex. insulin

2

what are sensory nerves

'afferent' take information from periphery to CNS

3

what are motor nerves

'efferent' take information from the CNS to the periphery and produce a peripheral change

4

what muscles does the somatic system act on

skeletal

5

what muscles does the autonomic system act on

smooth and cardiac

6

how is the somatic nervous system controlled

consciously

7

how is the autonomic nervous system controlled

automatic control of ograns and glands

8

what are the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system

sympathetic and parasympathetic

9

what does ergotropic mean, which system is it

energy expenditure
sympathetic

10

what does trophotropic mean, which system

leading to growth
para

11

which spinal segments do sym come from

thoracic
lumbar
T1-L2

12

which spinal segments do para come from

cranial 3,7,9,10
sacral S2-4

13

what are the length of axons in sym and significance

preganglion: short
post: long
cant pick and choose certain organs, activates as a whole

14

what are the length of axon in para and significance

preganglion: long
post:short
can pick and choose which organ recieves signal

15

what do all pre ganglions release

acetylcholine and are excitatory

16

what do sym post ganglions release

noepinephrine and are excitatory and inhibitory

17

what do para post ganglions release

acetylcholine and are excitatory and inhibitory

18

how is excitation or inhibition mediated

receptors

19

what are the target organs of the parasympathetic system

head
neck
trunk
external genitalia

20

what are the target tissues of the sympathetic system

organs of head neck trunk genitalia
adrenal medulla
vascular smooth muscle
arrector muscles in hair
sweat glands in skin

21

effect of ANS on the pupil

sym: dilates
para: constricts

22

effect if ANS on saliva flow

sym: inhibits
para: stimulates

23

effect of ANS on heartbeat

sym: accelerates
para: decelerates

24

effect of ANS on bronchi

sym: dilates
para: constricts

25

effect of ANS on GI perstalisis and secretion

sym: inhibits
para: stimulates

26

effect of ANS on the liver functions

sym: stimulates conversion of glycogen to glucose
para: stimulates release of bile

27

effect of ANS on the adrenal medulla

sym: secretion of adrenaline and noadrenaline
para: none

28

effect of ANS on bladder

sym: inhibits constraction
para: constracts

29

what are paravetebral ganglia

located at the sides of the vertebrea united by preganglions on the sympathetic trunk

30

how far do preganglionic neurons go compared to post

pre- T1- L3
post- cervical to coccyx
pre will ascend or descend to reach synapse

31

what are cardiopulmonary splanchnics

postganglionic fibers to the thoracic viscera

32

what are abdominopelvic splanchnics

preganglion fibers to preveretebral ganglia then postganglionic fibers to abdominopelvic viscera

33

what are the 3 prevertebral ganglia

inf mesentery ganglion
superior mesentary ganglion
celiac ganglion

34

explain how to get from L-tyrosine to dopamine

Ltyrosine to DOPA to dopamine to norepinephrine to epinephrine

35

describe the receptor and signal transduction in alpha 1 adrenergic receptor

activates phospholipase C which will activate protein kinase C and increase calcium and protein kinase activity

36

describe receptor and signal transduction in alpha 2 adrenergic receptor

inactivates adenylate cyclase decreasing camp and therefore camp dependent protein kinase activity

37

describe the receptor and signal transduction in beta adrenergic receptors

activates adenylate cyclase which increase camp and camp dependent protein kinase activity

38

what is the response of alpha 1 adrenergic receptors

smooth muscle contraction

39

what is the response of alpha 2 adrenergic receptors

inactivates noepinephrine and insulin release

40

what is the response of beta adrenergic receptors

heart lung and energy regulation
gluconeogenesis, lipolysis, increase heart rate, bronchodilation

41

descibe two methods of noepinephrine uptake

1. MAO converts to metabolites
2. COMT converts to metabolites

42

what is the rate limiting step in the synthesis of noepinephrine

hydroxylation of tyrosine

43

what are 5 sites to alter the activity of a neurotransmitter

synthesis
storage
release
receptor
degradation

44

ANS effect on lacrimal glands

para- stimulates tears

45

ANS effect on salivary glands

sym- thick viscous secretion
para- watery

46

ANS effect on heart

sym- increased rate and contractility
para- decreased rate and contractility

47

ANs effet on gastrointestinal

sym: decrease motility and tone
para: increase ''

48

ANS effect on female genitalia

sym:relaxation of uterus

49

ANS effect on skeletal blood vessels

sym: dilation

50

ANS effect on skin blood vessels

sym: constrict

51

ANS effect on male genitalia

sym: stimulates ejaculation
para: stimulates erection

52

ANS effect on bladder

sym: relax detrusor, contract sphincter
para: cotnract detrusor, relax sphincter

53

ANS effect on kidney

sym: secretion of renin

54

ANS effect on trachea and bronchioles

sym: dilates
para: constricts

55

ANS effect on the eye

sym: contract iris radial muscle, dilate
para: contract iris sphincter and ciliary muscles, contract

56

what are the 2 cholinergic receptors

nicotinic and muscarinic

57

describe signal transduction in muscarinic receptor M1,3,5

activates phospholipase C then active protein kinase C and increase calcium

58

describe the receptor and signal transduction in muscarinic receptors M2,4

inactivates adenylate cyclase decreases camp and camp dependent protein kinase activity
activates potassium channels

59

what is the response from M1,3,5 receptors

excitation

60

response from M2,4 receptors

inhibition

61

what are the two components of acetylcholine

from choline and acetylcoA

62

describe degradation of acetylcholine

rapidly hydrolyzed by acetylcholinesterase in synaptic cleft

63

give an example of opposite effects at the same site

SA node
NE beta increases heart rate
ach M decreases heart rate

64

give an example of opposite effects at different site

pupil
NE alpha dilates
ach M constricts

65

give example of sym nerves acting on para nerve endings

NE alpha decreases Ach releases in intestinal wall

66

give an example of complementary effects

male genital
para- erection
sym- ejaculation

67

give an example of an organ that receives one system

ciliary eye muscles - Ach
arterioles of most organs- NE

68

what formula determines blood pressure

BP= CO x TPR

69

what is the baroreceptor reflex

specialized areas in carotid sinus/aortic arch sensitive to stretch detect changes in BP and sends messages to brain cardiovascular center

70

how is high blood pressure corrected

decrease sym, increase para

71

how is low blood pressure corrected

increase sym,
decrease para