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Flashcards in B16 Deck (14):

how are plants and animals interdependant on each other

plants produce food by photosynthesis
animals eat plants
animals pollinate plants
animals eat other animals
animals use plant and animal materials to build nests
plants need nutrients from animal droppings and decay


what is a stable community

where all species and environmental factors are in balance so that population sizes remain fairly constant


what are 7 abiotic factors that affect communities

light intensity
moisture levels
soil pH and mineral content
wind intensity and direction
availability of oxygen
availability of carbon dioxide


what are 4 biotic factors that affect communities

availability of food
new pathogens or parasites
new predators
interspecific competition


what are 4 things that plants compete for

light for photosynthesis
water for photosynthesis and for keeping tissues rigid and supported
nutrients from soil to make the chemicals needed in their cells
space to grow so their roots can absorb water and nutrients and their leaves can absorb light


how are plants adapted to avoid competition

have different roots; some shallow, some deep so they take nutrients and water from different areas of the soil


how are some sea birds adapted to their environment

get rid of all the extra salt they take in from the sea by 'crying' very salty water from a gland


how do some animals and plants survive extreme winter conditions

produce a chemical in their cells that acts as an anti- freeze. stops water in cells from freezing and destroying cells


what is an extremophile

an organsim that survives and reproduces in the most difficult conditions


what is a thermophile

a bacteria that can survive at temperatures of over 45c they have specially adapted enzymes that do not denature at these high temperatures


how are organisms that live in the dead sea or salt flats adapted

their cytoplasm is adapted so that water does not move out of their cells into salty environment


how are some organisms adapted to their normal conditions

migration during a certain season
antifreeze in cells


how are animals adapted to cold climates

small surface area : volume ratio
small surface area of thin skinned areas eg ears
blubber layer
thick fur


how are animals adapted to dry climates

adapted kidneys so they can produce concentrated urine and need little or nothing to drink, they get their water from the foods they eat
most active in early morning/ evening when it is cool
rest in burrows or shady areas
large SA:V ratio