B6 preventing and treating disease Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in B6 preventing and treating disease Deck (22):

what are antigens

unique proteins on cell surface that recognise the different antigens on microorganisms


how do white blood cells help prevent disease

they make specific antibodies which join with the antigens and inactivate or destroy the pathogen


what are memory cells

white blood cells that 'remember' the right antibody needed to destroy a pathogen and then make the same antibody quickly to destroy the pathogen


what is a vaccine

made of dead or inactivated form of a disease causing microorganism which stimulates the body's natural immune response to invading pathogens


what is herd immunity

when a large proportion of the population are vaccinated and therefore immune to a disease meaning the spread of that pathogen is reduced and may disappear


what are pain killers

they relieve symptoms but don't kill pathogens or cure you


what are antibiotics

they work inside the body to kill bacterial pathogens without harming your body cells


what are antiseptics and disinfectants

they kill bacteria outside the body but are too poisonous to use inside the body as they would kill your body cells


why don't antibiotics kill virus

because they don't harm body cells and viruses are inside cells so it's difficult to kill viruses without harming the cells


what is antibiotic resistance

a mutation in bacteria that enable it to not be killed by antibiotics


what is preclinical testing

testing chemicals for potential medicines on cells, tissues and live animals


what are clinical trials

medicine tested on healthy volunteers and patients that can then be prescribed by doctors if it passes


what are double blind trials

when 1/2 the patients/volunteers are given the new drug and half are given a placebo


what are lymphocytes

white blood cells that make antibodies but can't divide


what are monoclonal antibodies

proteins that are produced to target particular cells or chemicals in the body


how are monoclonal antibodies used in pregnancy tests

by binding to the hormone human chorionic gonadotropin that is made in the early stages of pregnancy


how are monoclonal antibodies used in diagnosis of disease

they bind to specific antigens found on pathogens, blood clots or cancer cells


how are monoclonal antibodies used in measuring and monitoring

in hospitals and labs to measure/ monitor the levels or hormones or other chemicals in blood e.g. screening donated blood for HIV


how are monoclonal antibodies used in research

to locate/ identify specific molecules in cells or tissues. they produce the monoclonal antibodies linked to a fluorescent dye when they bind to the desired molecules you can see what's happened by observing the build up of fluorescence


what are 3 ways that monoclonal antibodies are used to treat cancer

1) trigger the immune system to recognise, attack and destroy cancer cells
2) to block receptors on the surface of cancer cells to stop them growing and dividing
3) used to carry toxic drugs or radioactive substances for radiation therapy


what are 3 advantages of monoclonal antibodies

1) only bind to specific diseased or damaged cells
2) healthy cells not affected
3) so specific that they can be used to treat a wide range of conditions


what are the disadvantages of monoclonal antibodies

1) drugs being carried around the body can affect healthy cells
2) expensive
3) using mouse cells only at first triggered an immune response in humans which caused side effects and held back research