B7 Non communicable diseases Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in B7 Non communicable diseases Deck (31):
1

what is a casual mechanism

explains how one factor influences another through a biological process

2

define tumour

something that forms when the cell cycle sequence is lost and the cells grow in an abnormal, uncontrolled way

3

what are most cancers the result of

mutations- changes in the genetic material

4

what is a carcinogen

a cancer causing agent

5

how does ionising radiation cause tumours to form

because it interrupts the normal cell cycle

6

how do cancer cells feed themselves to continue growing

by sending signals to trigger the formation of blood vessels to feed the growing tumour

7

what is radiotherapy

targeting cancer cells with doses of radiation. this stops mitosis in the cancer cells but can also affect healthy cells

8

what is chemotherapy

chemicals are used to either stop the cancer cells dividing or make them self destruct

9

how many chemicals do tobacco leaves produce when burned

4000- 150 being linked to disease

10

what is nicotine

addictive, relatively harmless, produces a sensation of calm and well being

11

what is carbon monoxide

a poisonous gas that takes up some of the oxygen carrying capacity of your blood which can lead to a shortage of oxygen and breathlessness

12

what is tar

a sticky black chemical that accumulates in the lungs and turns them grey.

13

what diseases does tar increase the risk of

bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

14

why should women not smoke during pregnancy

because if her blood contains carbon monoxide the foetus may not get enough oxygen to grow properly

15

what can smoking during pregnancy lead to

premature births, low weight babies and stillbirths

16

what does smoking do to the skin

narrows the blood vessels in your skin which ages it

17

what does nicotine do to the body

makes the heart rate increase and other chemicals damage the lining of the arteries and increases the risk of CHD and clot formation

18

what can increase in blood pressure lead to

cardiovascular diseases such as heart attacks and strokes

19

what do the chemicals in tobacco smoke do to the cilia

they anaesthetise the cilia in the trachea and bronchi that love mucus bacteria and dirt away from the lungs

20

what can the anaesthetic of the cilia cause

dirt and pathogens to get into the lungs which increases the risk of infection and the build up of mucus causes coughing

21

how is type 2 diabetes caused

when either your body doesn't make enough insulin to control blood sugar levels or cells stop responding to insulin

22

what problems can T2 diabetes cause

problems with circulation, kidney function and eyesight

23

why does the liver remove alcohol from the body

so it doesn't do any damage as it is a poisonous substance

24

how can alcohol affect the brain

because the ethanol is absorbed into the blood from the gut and passed into body tissues including the brain

25

what effects can alcohol have on the body

affects the nervous system
makes thought processes, reflexes and reactions slower than normal

26

what is cirrhosis

a disease of the liver caused by alcohol that destroys the liver tissue and replaces active liver cells with scar tissue that can't carry out vital functions

27

what happens when the brain is damaged by alcohol

it can become soft and pulpy, normal brain structures are lost and it can no longer function properly

28

why is drinking alcohol whilst pregnant bad

alcohol passes across the placenta into the developing baby. the developing liver can't cope so the development of the brain and body can be badly affected

29

what are some of the consequences of feral alcohol syndrome

baby may have facial deformities, problems with teeth, jaw, hearing, kidney, liver and heart or learning and developmental problems

30

how is radiation a carcinogen

it penetrates the cells and damages the chromosomes causing dna mutations

31

what are 4 sources of ionising radiation

ultraviolet light from sun

radioactive materials found in soil water and air

medical and dental x rays

accidents in nuclear power generations