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Flashcards in B9 Respiration Deck (21):

what is the equation for aerobic respiration

glucose + oxygen -> carbon dioxide + water

C6H12O6 + 6CO2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O


where in the cell does aerobic respiration take place

in the enzymes in the mitochondria


what role does the nucleus play in aerobic respiration

contains the genetic information for the enzymes involved in respiration


what happens in the cytoplasm

location for anaerobic respiration reactions

where the enzymes are made


how are mitochondria adapted for aerobic respiration

they have a folded inner membrane that provides a large surface area for the enzymes involves in aerobic respiration


what is respiration used for in plants

the energy made is transferred to move mineral ions eg nitrates from the soil into the root hair cells.
Also converts sugars, nitrates and other nutrients into amino acids which form proteins


what is an adaptation of muscle fibres

they contain lots of mitochondria to carry out aerobic respiration and transfer energy


what do muscles store and how is it used

they store glycogen (the stored version of glucose) which can be converted back to glucose quickly to use in aerobic respiration during exercise


what changes take place in the heart when muscular activity increases

heart rate increases and arteries dilate which increases flow of oxygenated blood to the muscles which provides more oxygen and glucose for the respiring muscle and increases the rate carbon dioxide is removed


why do we breathe faster and more deeply when exercising

to get oxygen to the red blood cells more quickly so it can be carried to the muscles and so carbon dioxide can be breathed out more quickly


what happens to glycogen when we start exercising

converted back to glucose to fuel aerobic respiration


when is anaerobic respiration used

when blood cannot supply oxygen to the muscles fast enough so only the energy from the breakdown of glucose is used


what is the end product of anaerobic respiration and why is it different to aerobic respiration

end product is lactic acid because glucose molecules are not broken down completely so less energy is transferred


why do you carry on breathing deeply and quickly after exercising

the lactic acid has to be broken down into carbon dioxide and water and to do this is needs oxygen


what is oxygen debt

the amount of oxygen needed to break down the lactic acid into carbon dioxide and water. The bigger the debt the longer you will be out of breath


what are the products of anaerobic respiration in plants and some microorganisms eg yeast

ethanol and carbon dioxide


what is fermentation and why is it important

it is the anaerobic respiration of yeast cells and is used to make bread and alcoholic drinks


what is metabolism of an organism

the sum of all the chemical reactions that take place


what are some common metbolic reactions (6)

conversion of glucose to starch, glycogen and cellulose

formation of lipid molecules from a molecule of glycerol and 3 fatty acid molecules

use of glucose and nitrate ions to form amino acids that are then used to make proteins

respiration and photosynthesis reactions

breakdown of excess proteins in the liver to form urea for excretion in the urine by the kidneys


what are some metabolic functions of the liver

detoxifying poisonous substances eg ethanol from alcoholic drinks

passing breakdown products into the blood so they can be excreted by the kidneys

breaking down old worn out blood cells so they can be stored as iron until needed to synthesise more blood cells


what role does the liver have in converting lactic acid into glucose

blood flowing through muscles transports lactic acid to the liver where it is converted back to glucose