B2 Anatomy of the Heart Flashcards Preview

Phase I Medicine > B2 Anatomy of the Heart > Flashcards

Flashcards in B2 Anatomy of the Heart Deck (79):
1

Where is the heart in the body?

Thorax

2

How big is the heart?

In adulthood about the size of one's own fist

3

Where does the apex of the heart point towards?

Left nipple

4

Where is the right side of the heart located?

between third and sixth costal cartilages (at sternal angles)

5

Where is the apex of the heart located?

5th intercostal space, mid clavicular line

6

What fraction of the heart is on the left side of the heart?

2/3

7

Which vertebra does the heart start on?

T5

8

Which vertebra does the heart end at?

T8

9

What is the the heart tissue known as?

Pericardium

10

What is serous pericardium made from?

Parietal pericardium
Visceral pericardium

11

What is the heart muscle actually made from?

Visceral pericardium
Myocardium
Endocardium

12

Where is fibrous pericardium?

The outermost layer of the pericardium

13

What is between the visceral and parietal pericardium?

Pericardial cavity

14

Where is the endocardium?

Lining the ventricles and atria

15

What type of cavity is the pericardial cavity?

A potential space

16

What is the appearance of parietal pericardium?

Shiny

17

What is the posterior surface of the heart in its anatomical position?

Left atrium

18

What part of the heart forms the apex?

Left ventricle

19

What is the part of the heart in contact with the sternal surface?

Left ventricle

20

What is the part of the heart in contact with the diaphragm?

Left ventricle/ Right ventricle

21

What is the surface in contact with the diaphragm known as?

Diaphragmatic surface

22

What is the surface in contact with the left lung known as?

Left pulmonary border

23

What is the right border of the heart?

Right atrium and superior vena cava

24

What is the left border of the heart?

Left ventricle
Left auricle
Pulmonary trunk
Aortic arch

25

Why is knowing the radiological borders of the heart important?

You'll be able to know the locations of pathology when the border gets distorted

26

What are the purposes of the atria?

To fill the ventricles
To set the cardiac pace

27

What is the pace of the atria contracting?

>60bpm

28

What is the sinus venarum?

The smooth area of the right atrium

29

What is the musculi pectini

The rough area of the right atrium

30

What is the sulcus terminalis?

The groove on the outside of the heart which marks the location of the SAN

31

What is the crista terminalis?

A ridge on the inside of the heart that separates the smooth area from the rough area and contains the SAN

32

What is the fossa ovalis?

A hole in the septum of the heart in fetal circulation

33

Where would you find the septum of the heart?

Between the left and right sides of the heart

34

True or false? The left atrium forms one of the borders of the heart?

False

35

Is the left side of the heart thicker than the right side of the heart?

Yes

36

Why is one side of the heart thicker than the other?

To pump over greater area and against gravity.

37

Without the SAN, how quickly can the ventricles pump?

Maximum 40bpm

38

What are trabeculae carnae?

'ridges of meat'; lumps all over the place

39

What are cordae tendinae?

Tendinous cords

40

Where are trabeculae carnae?

Right ventricle

41

Where are cordae tendinae?

Right ventricle

42

What is the function of cordae tendinae?

Stops backflow of blood by holding valves down.

43

What are papillary muscles?

Muscles in the right ventricle of the heart

44

Why are papillary muscles important?

Contracts to close valves by pulling on the cusps

45

What is the trabeculum septomarginalis?

A moderator band that the right bundle of His travels through

46

What is the infundibulum?

Smooth funnel-like pathway leading to the pulmonary artery in the right ventricle

47

Which of the two ventricles does the septum project into?

The right ventricle

48

What does papillary muscle infarction result in?

Regurgitation/ ejection at the point when ventricular pressure is greater than the cordae tendinae can control

49

What is the only valve that isn't tricuspid?

Left AV - Mitral

50

What plane do all of the cardiac valves roughly lie in?

Almost sagittal plane behind sternum

51

Why can't you directly auscultate the valves?

1. They're behind the sternum
2. Chamber into which the valve opens is closer than the valves
3. Better and easier to distinguish the sounds by auscultating the direction of flow.

52

What is the direction of flow across the aortic valve?

Superior and lateral to the valve - left side of sternum

53

What is the direction of flow across the pulmonary valve?

Superior but contralateral to the aortic valve

54

What is the direction of flow across the tricuspid valve?

Towards the apex of the heart

55

What is the direction of flow across the mitral valve?

At the apex of the heart

56

How can you determine pathology though auscultation?

The auscultatory regions will move if affected by something

57

Where do the heart's sinuses drain into?

Coronary arteries

58

Where is the right coronary artery in relation to the sinus?

Comes off the anterior sinus

59

Where is the left coronary artery in relation to the sinus?

Comes off the posterior sinus

60

What are the correct names for the sinuses?

One anterior; two posterior

61

Are there left, right and posterior sinuses?

No - these are incorrect anatomically

62

What is special about coronary artery filling?

They only fill when valves are closed and blood rushes back from the aorta to fill them (diastole) - don't fill when the heart ejects its blood

63

Why do coronary arteries fill weirdly?

1. They are not positioned where the flow of blood would be in systole.
2. The pressure is too high for there to be enough blood filling for them

64

When the heart muscle is contracting, what happens to the capillary bed?

It closes off

65

Where can you find coronary arteries?

Next to the coronary sinuses
On the surface of the heart

66

What is the purpose of the coronary arteries?

They supply the heart muscle

67

How do the coronary sinuses distribute supplying and draining the heart?

They equally supply and drain the heart

68

Where is the coronary sinus?

the coronary groove between the left atrium and left ventricle.

69

Where does the coronary sinus drain into?

The coronary sinus opens into the right atrium between the openings of the inferior vena cava and the tricuspid valve

70

What is the obtuse marginal artery?

A branch of the left circumflex artery which travels towards the apex of the heart

71

What are the accompaniments to coronary arteries?

Cardiac veins

72

What are the different cardiac veins?

Great
Middle
Small

73

What does the great cardiac vein accompany?

Anterior interventricular artery

74

What does the middle cardiac vein accompany?

Posterior interventricular artery

75

What does the small vein accompany?

Marginal artery

76

Where do oblique veins come off of?

Left atrium

77

Where do veins (exc. veni cordis minimi) drain blood?

Into the coronary sinus which drains into the right atrium

78

Where do veni cordis minimi drain into?

The chamber nearest to them

79

What is the average heart rate of an adult?

72bpm