B6 Behavioural Theories Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in B6 Behavioural Theories Deck (55):
1

From an evolutionary perspective, why do people get anxious?

Fearful people survive and pass on their genes

2

What are the psychological symptoms of anxiety?

Headaches, pain, fatigue
Hyperventilation - dizziness, tingling fingers and toes
Sympathetic over-activity - Sweating, pale skin, dry mouth, butterflies, nausea, loose stools

3

What are the psychological symptoms of anxiety?

CNS: Poor concentration, memory, feeling unreal
Mood: Fear, panic, worry, on edge, irritable
Thoughts of future danger/losing control/worry

4

What are unhealthy behaviours associated with anxiety?

Pacing, maladaptive coping mechanisms, avoiding, safety behaviours, seeking reassurance for health

5

What are treatments for anxiety?

Education
Relaxation
CBT
SSRIs
Benzodiazepines

6

What is learning?

Relatively permanent change in behaviour resulting from an experience

7

Why do we learn?

Enables us to adapt to environment -> survival

8

What is the neuronal basis of learning?

More axonal connections between neurons
Increased efficiency of neurotransmitter release across synapse

9

List some different types of learning?

Associative
Vicarious
Factual transmission
Complex

10

What is associative learning?

Linking certain events together

11

What is vicarious learning?

Learning by direct observation

12

What is factual transmission?

Passing on facts

13

What are examples of complex learning?

Social learning
Emotional intelligence

14

What is the theme of classical conditioning?

Somebody can be trained to think that A reliably predicts B

15

Is the subjective of classical conditioning active or passive?

Passive

16

What is another name for classical conditioning?

Respondent learning

17

What is another name for operant conditioning?

Instrumental learning

18

What is the theme behind operant conditioning?

Some can learn that a particular response predicts an event

19

Is operant conditioning an active or passive process?

Active

20

What is positive reinforcement?

Adding something good
Maintains/increases the same behaviour

21

What is negative reinforcement?

Taking away something bad
Maintains/increases the same behaviour

22

What is punishment?

Adding something bad
Stops/reduces the behaviour

23

Extinction

Taking away something good
Stops/reduces the behaviour

24

Which type of conditioning explains the origin of phobias?

Classical

25

What type of conditioning explains the maintenance of phobias?

Operant

26

Where is conditioning applied?

Parenting
CBT
Teaching
Adverts
Movies

27

How does classical conditioning work?

Pair the conditioned stimulus with the unconditioned stimulus and unconditioned response a few times and the subject will respond to the conditioned stimulus, expecting the conditioned response

28

What is an unconditioned stimulus?

Something that automatically elicits a response (typically a reflex) without prior conditioning

29

What is an unconditioned response?

The response to an unconditioned stimulus

30

What is a conditioned stimulus?

Neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a response through association with the unconditioned one

31

What is a conditioned response?

A learned response to a stimulus that originally elicited no response from the subject

32

What is the Law of Effect?

Successful behaviour will be repeated

33

For reinforcement techniques to be successful, what must the reinforcer/reward be?

Immediate
Linked to act

34

What is the difference between primary and secondary reinforcers'?

Primary - Innately desired (e.g. food, shelter)
Secondary - Wanted to make you feel good (e.g. Praise, success)

35

What is continuous reinforcement?

Reinforcement of every single response

36

What is partial reinforcement?

Reinforcement happens but not after every response

37

What are the different types of partial reinforcement?

Fixed
Variable
Interval
Ratio

38

What are ratio schedules?

The consistency of reinforcement depends on the number of responses the subject gives

39

What are interval schedules?

The consistency of reinforcement depends on the time interval that the subject does something

40

What is the difference between fixed and variable reinforcement?

Fixed - predictable
Variable - unpredictable

41

True or false? People work harder under partial reinforcement in comparison to continuous

True

42

True or false? Effort decreases with time/ ratio dependent reinforcement

False

43

Is extinction of a response faster or slower with partial reinforcement?

Slower

44

Is extinction of a response faster or slower with predictable schedules?

Faster

45

What is shaping?

Rewarding behaviours each time the subject gets a little bit closer to their goal

46

What is chaining?

Breaking down difficult tasks into smaller ones and reinforcing the subject each time they complete a task

47

What is a phobia?

A marked and persistent fear triggered by a specific object/ situation

48

What are the 3 types of phobia?

Agoraphobia
Social phobia
Specific phobia

49

What is the term for some specific fears being innate because they would aid survival?

Biological preparedness

50

What is the best treatment for phobias?

Graded exposure

51

What is avoidance?

Negative reinforcement where the response learned provides a complete escape from an unpleasant situation

52

What is another term for avoidance?

Escape learning

53

What process does graded exposure result in?

Habituation

54

What does S.M.A.R.T stand for?

Specific
Measurable
Achievable
Realistic
Timed

55

What is the vicious circle of depression?

Low mood results in doing less, doing less results in low mood