Flashcards in Bacillus Deck (27)
Bacillus descriptive statement
LARGE Gram + rods -*Motile*(most) - Catalase +, Oxidase -, Aerobes/facultative anaerobes- Endospores (persist in environment 50+ yrs)
Bacillus anthracis Transmission
Ingestion/inhalation/ invasion of wounds by spores--> complex toxins
Bacillus anthracis Virulence Factors
*Capsule w/ poly D glutamic acid* - Protective antigen - Edema factor (EdTx or EF) - Lethal Factor (LeTx or LF)
Bacillus anthracis Edema factor effects
Adenylate cyclase upsets water homeostasis
Bacillus anthracis Protective antigen
Binds EF and LF - Essential for those factors to function - (PA+LF=Lethal Activity) (EF+PA=edema) (EF+LF=inactive) (PA+LF+EF=edema & necrosis, lethal)
Bacillus anthracis Lethal factor
Zinc metalloprotease, essential for lethal effects
Bacillus anthracis aka...
Anthrax!! Category A bioterrorism agent!
Bacillus anthracis colonies
"Ground Glass" - "Medusa Head colony"
When I say medusa head colony, you say...
Bacillus anthracis susceptibility
Ruminants > Carnivores > birds=resistant
What should you do if you find a big, dead, bloated cow with no signs of rigor mortis?
NOT NECROPSY! Report it, get authorities to do it properly or on-site incineration
Bacillus anthracis: Ruminants (including post mortem description)
Septicemia, rapidly fatal. Epistaxis - Postmortem: rapid bloating, incomplete rigor, widespread hemorrhages, edema, large soft spleen
Bacillus anthracis in Pigs
Less fatal (similar in carnivores) - Edema of throat & head - Mesenteric & regional lymphadenitis - Dysentary (Swollen head, bloody diarrhea)
Bacillus anthracis in horses
SQ edema of thorax, abdomen, legs - Swelling of pharynx, asphyxiation - In septicemic cases, extensive ecchymoses and splenomegaly (Swollen trunk / pharynx / legs)
If I say edematous swelling of throat & head of a pig or carnivore, you say...
If I say SubQ edema of thorax, abdomen or legs of a horse, you might say....
If I say multifocal, hemorrhagic enteric lesions, you say...
If I say extensive ecchymoses and splenomegaly in a horse, you might say
Bacillus anthracis - septicemic case!
Bacillus anthracis in humans
Cutaneous anthrax (most common) - Inhalation anthrax ("Wool sorters' disease) - GI anthrax
If I say Wool Sorters' disease, you say....
Bacillus anthracis in humans!
What does Bacillus lichemiformis cause, in what species?
Sporadic abortion in cattle & sheep
"Be serious" - Human food poisoning - Rare mastitis in cows
American foulbrood in bees
What does a HIGH dose of LeTx or LF cause?
Apoptosis of macrophages
What does a LOW dose of LeTx or LF cause?
Cytokine "storm" --> multiorgan dysfunction - endotoxemia
Bacillus antracis pathogenesis
Spores in environment --> Macrophages phago. --> AtxA or AcpA trigger "activation" of bacteria --> release LeTx and EdTx, capsule, other toxins --> Escape --> hyperproduction of cytokines --> gelatinous edema & bleeding from EVERYWHERE