Bacteria Flashcards Preview

Step I > Bacteria > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bacteria Deck (97):
1

what bugs stain w/Giemsa

Certain Bugs Really Try My Patience
Chlamydia
borrelia
rickettsia
trypanosomes
plasmodium

2

PAS

stains glycogen
Dx whipples disease

3

Ziehl-Neelsen

Acid fast bacteria
nocardium
mycobacteria
protozoa

4

india ink

cryptococcus neoformans

5

silver stain

fungi
legionella
H. pylori

6

What do you grow H. influenza on

Chocolate agar

7

What do you grow Nieserria on?

Thayer martin VTCN
V- vancomycin (kills gram +)
T- trimethoprim (kills other gram -)
C- colistin (kills other gram -)
Nystatin (kills fungi)

8

what do you grow B. pertusis on

Bordet-gengou agar
regan lowe medium

9

what do you grow C. diptheriae on

tellurite agar
loeffler medium

10

what do you grow M. tuberculosis on

lowenstein-jensen agar

11

what do you grow M. pneumonia on?

eaton agar

12

what do you grow lactose fermenting enterics on

MacConkey agar

13

what do you grow E.Coli on

Eosin-methylene blue (EMB)

14

what do you grow legionella on

charcoal yeat extract agar buffered w/cysteine and Fe

15

what do you grow Fungi on

Sabouraud agar
Sab's a Fun guy

16

what are the aerobes

Naggin Pests Must Breathe
Nocardia
Pseudomonas
MycoBacterium

17

Anaerobs

Anaerobes frankly Cant Breathe Air
Fusobacterium
clostridium bacterioides
actinomyes

18

obligate intracellular

stay inside when it is Really CHilly and Cold
rickettsia
chlamydia
Coxiella

19

faculative intracellualr

Some Nasty Bugs May Live FaculativeLY
salmonella
neisseria
brucella
mycobacterium
listeria
francisella
legionella
yersinia pestis

20

encapsulated bacteria

SHiNE SKiS
streptococcus pneumonia
H. influenza
Neisseria meningitidis
E. coli
Salmonella
Kelbsiella
group B Strep

21

urease +

CHuck norris hates PUNKSS
cryptococcus
H. pylori
Proteus
Ureaplasma
nocardia
kelbsiella
S. epidermidis
S. saprophyticus

22

Catalase +

CATs Need PLACESS to hide
Catalase
nocardia
psudomonas
listeria
aspergillus
candidia
E. coli
staphylococci
serratia

23

protein A

expressed by S. aureus
binds Fc region of IgG
prevents opsonization and phagocytosis

24

IgA protease

secreted by S. pneumoniae, H. influenza type B, Neisseria (SHiN)
can colonize respiratory mucosa

25

M protein

Expressed by S. pyogens
prevents phagocytosis
molecular mimicry -> rheumatic fever

26

Type III secretion system

aka injectisome for direct delivery of toxins
gram negs: Pseudomonas, salmonella, shigella, E. coli

27

What bacteria inhibits protein synthesis?

-C. diphtheriae toxin inactivates EF-2
-Psuedomonas exotoxin inactivated EF-2
-Shigella toxin inactivates 60S ribosome
-EHEC shiga-like toxin inactivates 60S ribosome

28

what bacteria increase fluid secretion?

-ETEC LT overactivates cAMP so more Cl- is secreted
-ETEC ST overactivates cGMP so less NaCl is aborbed
-B. anthracis edema toxin increases cAMP
-V. cholerae toxin increased cAMP more Cl secreted

29

which bacteria inhibit phagoctic ability

B. pertusis toxin blocks Gi -> increase AC and cAMP

30

which bacteria inhibit NT release

-C. tetani tetanospasmin blocks release of GABA
-C. botulinum toxin blocks release of Ach

31

which bacteria lyse cell membranes

-C. perfringens alpha toxin is a phospholipase and degrades tissues and membranes
-S. pyogens streptolysin O

32

What superAgs cause shock?

S. aureus TSST-1 and S. pyognes exotoxin A both binds MHC II and TCR -> release of IL-1, IL-2, IFN-Y, and TNFalpha

33

endotoxin effects

ENDOTOXIN
Edema
Nitric oxide
DIC/Death
Outer membrane
TNFalpha
O-Ag
eXtremely heat stable
IL-1
Neutrophil chemotaxis

34

Which organisms are Novobiocin resistant?

No StRES
NOvobiocin
Saprophyticus is Resistant
Epidermis is Sensitive

35

which organisms are optochin resistant?

OVRPS (overpass)
Optochin
Viridans Resistant
Pneumoniae Sensitive

36

what organisms are Bacitracin resistant?

B-BRAS
Bacitracin
group B strep Resistant
group A strep Sensitive

37

which are alpha hemolytic?

green ring
S. pneumoniae (catalaste -, optochin sensitive)
S. viridans (catalase -, optochin resistant)

38

which are beta hemolytic?

S. aureus (catalase +, coagulase +)
S. pyogens (catalase -, bacitracin sensitive)
S. agalactiae (catalse -, bacitracin resistant)
Listeria (tumbling motilitly)

39

S. pneumonia is the MCC of what?

meningitis
otitis media
pneumonia
sinusitis

40

C. diptheriae acronym

ABCDEFG
A- ADP ribosylation
B- beta prophage/black colonies
C- cystine-tellurite agar
D- diptheriae toxin
EF- elongation factor 2
G- granules

41

What produces spores?

B. anthracis
B. cereus (food poisoning)
C. botulinum
C. difficile
C. perfringens (gas gangrene)
C. tetani
C. burnetti (Q-fever)

42

which beta hemolytic strep is PYR +

Strep pyogens (A)
Strep agalactiae (B) is PYR-

43

What feature is unique to B. anthracis

polypeptide capsule containing D-glutamate

44

B. cereus

food poisoning -> reheated rice syndrome
nausea and vomiting 1-5hrs
diarrea 8-18 hrs

45

Listeria

facultative intracellular
dairy and deli products (likes cold temps)
rocket tails
tumbling motility
ONLY gram + to produce endotoxin

46

Actinomyces vs nocardia

both gram +
nocardia weakly acid fast
actinomyces are normal oral flora, nocardia in soil
actinomyces causes oral/facial abscesses w/yellow sulfur granules
nocardia causes pulmonary infections and wound infections

47

Tx of actinomyces and nocardia

SNAP
sulfonamides- nocardia
actinomyces- penicillin

48

what test has fewer false + then PPD?

INF-y release assay (IGRA)

49

Which gram - are comma shaped?

Campylobacter (grows at 42 degrees)
V. cholerae (grows in alkaline media, people on protein pump inhibitors at risk)
H. pylori (produces urease)
these are also oxidase +

50

which gram - are diplococci?

N. MeninGitidis (ferments Maltose and Glucose)
N. Gonorrhoeae (only ferments Glucose)
also N. meningitidis has polysaccharide capsule and gonorrheae does NOT

51

which gram - are pleomorphic?

aka coccoid rods
H. influenza (needs factor V and X)
pasturella (animal bites)
brucella
B. pertusis

52

which gram - rods are lactose fermenters?

Test with MacConKEEs
Citrobacter (slow fermenter)
Kelbsiella
E. coli
Enterobacter
Serratia (slow fermenter)

53

which gram - rods do not ferment lactose and are oxidase +?

pseudomonas

54

which gram - rods do not ferment lactose and are oxidase -?

Salmonella
Proteus
Yersinia
Shigella (does not produce H2S, the above do)

55

what syndrome can N. gonorrheae cause?

Fitz-hugh curtis

56

what syndrome can N. meningitidis cause?

Waterhouse friderichsen

57

what grows on chocolate agar?

H. influenza

58

what enterics invade lymph?

Salmonella typhii and Yersinia pestis

59

what enteric invades mucosa

shigella
EIEC

60

legionella

Legionnaire with SILVER helmet sitting around a campfire with his IRON dagger he is no SISSY
-Silver stain
-grow on Charcoal with Fe and cysteine
Ag in urine
legonaires disease and pontiac fever

61

Pseudomonas

produces pyocyanin (blue-green)
grape like odor
produces endotoxin and exotoxin A (inactivates EF-2 like diptheriae toxin)
burn victims

62

ecthyma gangrenosum

rapidly progressive necrotic cutaneous lesion caused by psuedomonas usually in immunocompromised

63

EPEC

no toxin produced
usually in Peds

64

how can you distinguish EHEC from other E. coli

does NOT ferment sorbitol

65

unique features of Salmonella typhi

humans only
Vi capsule endotoxin
primarily monocytes respond
Oral vaccine of live attenuated
IM vaccine w/Vi Ag
constipation precedes diarrhea
pseudoappendicitis

66

Yersinia enterolitica

transmitted from pet feces, contaminated milk or pork
pseudoappendicitis

67

H. pylori

increased risk for ulcers, gastric adenocarcinoma, and MALT lymphoma
urea breath test or fecal Ag for Dx
Tx w/triple therapy (PPI, clarithromycin, amoxicillin)

68

Weil disease

lepto
severe form with jaundice and azotemia d/t liver and renal dysfnx, fever, hemorrhage, anemia

69

VDRL

for syphilis
False +:
Viral infections
Drugs
Rheumatic fever
Lupus and Leprosy

70

Jarisch-Herxheimer rxn

flu-like syndrome after initiation of abx for syphilis

71

Anaplasma

Anaplasmosis
Ixodes ticks

72

Bartonella

Cat scratch fever
bacillary angiomatosis

73

B. burgdorferi

Lyme
Ixodes tick

74

B. recurrentis

relapsing fever
Louse

75

Brucella

Brucellosis/undulant fever
unpasturized dairy

76

Campylobacter

Bloddy diarrhea
puppies, livestock

77

Chlamdophila psittaci

psittacossi
parrots and other birds

78

Coxiella burnetti

Q fever
aerosols of cattle/sheep amniotic fluid

79

Erlichia chaffeensis

Ehrlichiosis
ambylomma (lone star tick)

80

Fracisella tularensis

tularemia
ticks, rabbits, deer fly

81

Letpospira

Letospirosis
animal urine

82

Mycobacterium leprae

leprosy
armadillo

83

Pasteurella multocida

cellulitis, osteomyelitis
animal bite, cats, dogs

84

Rickettsia prowazekki

epidemic tuphus
louse

85

Rickettsia rickettsii

RMSF
dermacentor (dog) tick

86

Rickettsia typhi

endemi typhus
fleas

87

Salmonella

diarrhea, vomiting, fever, cramps
reptiles and poultry

88

Yersinia pestis

plague
fleas (rats and prairie dogs are reservoirs)

89

RMSF

Rickettsia rickettsii
rash starts at wrists, ankles then spreads

90

Typhus

endemic- fleas R. typhi
epidemic- louse R. prowazekii
rash starts centrally and moves out

91

ehrilichiosis

ehrichia
monocytes w/morulae (berry like inclusions)

92

anaplasmosis

granulocytes w/morulae

93

Q-fever

C. burnetii
spores
most common cause of culture neg endocarditis

94

what organisms cause a rash that starts on palms and soles?

Coxackievirus A
RMSF
Secondary syphilis

95

Chlamydia trachomatis type A, B, C

chronic infections cause blindness d/t follicular conjunctivitis in Africa

96

Chlamydia trachomatis types D-K

urethritis/PID
neonatal pneumonia w/eosinophilia
neonatal conjuctivits

97

Chlamydia trachomatis types L1-3

Lymphograuloma venereum
small painless ulcers on genitals w/swollen painful inguinal lymph nodes that ulcerate