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Flashcards in Viruses Deck (71):
1

recombination

exchange of genes btwn 2 chromosomes by crossing over w/in regions of homology

2

reassortment

when viruses w/segmented genomes exchange genetic material
influenza

3

complementation

HVD

4

phenotypic mixing

simultaneous infection of a cell w/2 viruses
genome A can be partially or completely coated w/surface proteins from virus B

5

live attenuated vaccines

Live! See small yellow rotating chickens get vaccinated w/Sabin and MMR, Its INcredible
Small pox
yellow fever
chicken pox
Sabin polio
MMR
Influenza (intranasal)

6

Killed vaccines

RIP Always
Rabies
Influenza
salk Polio
HAV

7

DNA viral genomes

All DNA viruses except Parvoviridae are dsDNA
all are linear except papilloma, polyoma, and hepadnaviruses (cicular)
are icoshedral (except pox)
Replicate in nucleus (expect poxvirus)

8

RNA viral genomes

All RNA viruses except Reoviridae are ssRNA
replicate in cytoplasm (except influenza and retroviruses)

9

+ strand RNA viruses

retro toga party where I drank FLAvored Corona and ate hippy California pickles
retrovirus
togavirus
flavivirus
coronavirus
hepevirus
calicivirus
picornavirus

10

naked viruses

give PAPP smears and CPR to a naked Heppy
PAPP = DNA, CPR and hep = RNA
papillomavirus
adenovirus
parvovirus
polyomavirus
calicivirus
picornavirus
reovirus
hepevirus

11

DNA viruses

HHAPPPPy viruses
Hepadena
Herpes
Adeno
Pox
Parvo
Papilloma
Polymyoma

12

Herpesviruses

enveloped
dsDNA, linear
HSV 1, 2
VZV (3)
EBV (4)
CMV (5)
HHV 6 (roseola)
HHV 7 (less common roseola)
HHV 8 (kaposi sarcoma)

13

Hepadnavirus

enveloped
partially DS and circular
HBV

14

adenovirus

naked
dsDNA and linear
febrile pharyngitis
pneumonia
pink eye

15

parvovirus

naked
ssDNA and linear
smallest DNA virus
B19 in kids
hydrops fetalis

16

papillomavirus

naked
dsDNA and circular
HPV warts, CIN, cervical CA (16, 18)

17

polyomarvirus

naked
dsDNA and circular
JC- junky cerebellum
BK- bad kidney

18

poxvirus

enveloped
dsDNA and linear
largest DNA virus
smallpox
cow pox
molluscum contagiosum

19

what is the most common cause of sporadic encephalitis?

HSV1
usually temporal lobe

20

what cells does EBV infect?

B cells via CD21
the atypical lymphocytes seen on smear are reactive cytotoxic T cells, not B cells
monospot test (agglutination of sheep or horse RBCs)
burkitt lymphoma and nasopharyngeal CA

21

Roseola

HHV 6,7
high fevers for several days, may cause seizures
followed by diffuse macular rash

22

Tzanck test

used to detect multinucleated giatn cells of HSV1,2 and VZV
can also see intranuclear inclusions

23

reoviruses

naked
dsRNA linear, 10-12 segments
icosahedral
coltivirus (CO tick fever)
rotavirus (MCC of fatal diarrhea in kids)

24

picornaviruses

naked
ssRNA pos linear
icosahedral
PERCH:
Polio
echo
rhino
coxsackie
HAV

25

echovirus

aseptic meningits

26

coxsackievirus

aseptic meningitis
herpangina (mouth blisters, fever)
hand, foot, and mouth disease
myocarditis, pericarditis

27

hepevirus

naked
ssRNA pos linear
iscosahedral
HEV

28

calicivirus

naked
ssRNA pos linear
icosahedral
norovirus

29

flavivirus

enveloped
ssRNA pos linear
icosahedral
HCV
yellow fever
dengue
St. louis encephalitis
west nile

30

togavirus

enveloped
ssRNA pos linear
icosahedral
rubella
EEE
WEE

31

retrovirus

enveloped
ssRNA pos linear (2 copies)
HIV- complex and conical
HTVL - icosahedral, Tcell leukemia

32

coronavirus

enveloped
ssRNA pos linear
helical
coronavirus and SARs

33

paramyxovirus

enveloped
ssRNA neg linear, nonsegmented
helical
PaRaMyxovirus
Parainfluenza- croup
RSV
Measles, Mumps

34

orthomyxoviruses

enveloped
ssRNA neg, 8 segments
helical
influenza

35

rhabdoviruses

enveloped
ssRNA neg linear
helical
rabies

36

filovirus

enveloped
ssRNA neg linear
helical
ebola

37

arenavirus

enveloped
ssRNA, neg circular, 3 segments
helical
lassa fever encephalitis

38

bunyavirsu

enceloped
ss neg circular 3 segments
helical
california encephalitis
sandfly/rift valley fever
crimean congo hemorrhagic fever
hantavirsus

39

delta virus

enveloped
ssRNA neg circular
HDV

40

neg strand viruses

Always Bring Polymerase Or Fail Replication
arenaviruses
bunyaviruses
paramyxoviruses
orthomyxoviruses
filoviruses
rhabdoviruses

41

segmented viruses

all RNA
BOAR
bunyavirus
orthomyxoviruses
arenaviruses
reoviruses

42

yellow fever

falvivirus
Aedes mosquito
high fever, black vomitus, jaundice
Councilman bodies (eosinophilic apoptotic globules) on liver Bx

43

influenza viruses

orthomyxoviruses
enveloped, neg ssRNA, 8 segments
hamagglutinin (viral entry)
neuraminidase (progeny virion release)

44

rubella virus

togavirus
aka german measles
fever, lymphadenopathy, arthralgias, fine rash
TORCH- blueberry muffin baby

45

paramyxoviruses

parainfluenza- croup
RSV
mumps
measles
surface F protein -> fuse -> multinucleated giant cells

46

measels

rubeola virus
1-prodromal fever w/cough, coryza, conjunctivitis
2-koplik spots
3- rash starts and head moves down
lymphadentis w/warthin-finkeldey giant cells w/background paracortical hyperplasia
SSPE years later
vit A supplementation can reduce mortality

47

mumps

paramyxovirus
POM:
parotits
orchiits
aseptic meningitis

48

rabies

bullet shaped virus
negri bodies in purkinjie cells

49

HAV

RNA picornavirus
F-O
no carrier
no increased risk for HCC

50

HBV

DNA hepadnavirus
parenteral, sexual, perinatal
carrier state
increased risk for HCC

51

HCV

RNA flavivirus
primarily blood transmission
carrier state
increased HCC risk

52

HDV

RNA delta virus
parenteral, sexual, perinatal
carrier state
superinfection short- HDV after HBV
coinfection long- HDV w/HBV

53

HEV

RNA hepevirus
F-O, especially water bourne
no carrier
no increased HCC
high mortality in prego women

54

HIV

diploid RNA genome
binds CD4, CCR5 on macros, and CXCR4 on T cells
3 structural proteins:
env (gp120, gp41)
gag
pol

55

env

gp 120- attachment to host CD4
gp41- fusion and entry

56

gag

aka p24
capsid protein

57

pol

reverse transcriptase
aspartate protese
integrase

58

pathogens once CD4

Candida albicans
EBV
Bartonella henselae
HHV-8
Cryptosporidum
HPV

59

EBV

oral hairy leukoplakia

60

Bartonella henselae

bacilllary angiomatosis
neutrophil inflammation

61

HHV-8

kaposi sarcoma
lymphocytic inflammation

62

cruptosporidum

chronic watery diarrhea
acid-fast oocysts in stool

63

pathogens once CD4

toxoplasma gondii
HIV dementia
JC
pneumocystis jorovecci

64

toxoplasmas gondii

multiple brain abscesses

65

JC virus

progressive multifocal leukoencephalopahty
demylination on MRI

66

Pneumocystis jirovecii

ground glass on CXR

67

CD4

aspergillus fumigatus
cryptococcus neoformas
candida
CMV
EBV
Histoplasma capsulatum
MAI

68

aspergillus fumigatus

hemoptysis
pleuritic pain
cavitation or infiltrates on CXR

69

cryptococcus neoformans

meningitis
encapsulated yeast on india ink

70

CMV

retinitis, esophagitis, colitis, pneumonitis, encephalitis
linear ulcers on endoscopy
cotton wool spots of fundoscopy

71

EBV

B cell lumphoma