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Flashcards in Fungi and Parasites Deck (54):
1

what fungi is NOT dimorphic

coccidioidomycosis
is a spherule not yeast in tissue

2

general rule for Tx of fungi

fluconazole or itraconazole for local infections
amphotericin B for systemic

3

Histoplasmosis

Miss/Ohio river valleys
Histo Hides in macrophages
bird/bat droppings

4

blastomycosis

east of Miss river and central america
granulomatous nodules
broad base budding

5

coccidioidomycosis

SW US
increased rates after earthquake
spherule

6

paracoccidioidomycosis

latin america
budding yeast w/captains wheel formation

7

dermatophytes

cutaneous infections
microporum
trichophyton
epidermophyton
branching spetate hyphae on KOH prep

8

tinea versicolor

malassezia
yeast like
spaghetti and meatballs

9

aspergillus fumigatus

in lung cavities post TB
produce aflatoxins -> hepatocellular carinoma
45 degree angles

10

crytococcus

encapsulated
soil, pigeon droppings
latex agglutination
'soap bubble' lesions in brain

11

rhizopus

mucor
usually in ketoacidosis or neutropenic
black eschar on face
irregular, broad,k nonseptated, brr at wide angles

12

when do you start prophylaxis for Pneumocystis jirovecii

CD4

13

how does sporothrix schenckii spread?

lymph

14

giardia

cysts in water
trophozoites or cysts in stool

15

entamoeba histolytica

amebiasis- bloody diarrhea, liver abscess, flask shaped ulcer
cysts in water
trophozoites in RBCs, cysts (up to 4 nuclei) in stool

16

cryptosporidum

severe diarrhea in AIDS
mild disease in normal
oocytes in water
oocytes acid-fast stain

17

Toxoplasma gondii

triad: chorioretinitis, hydrocephalus, intracranial calcifications
cysts in meat
oocytes in cats feces

18

Naegleria fowleri

rapidly fatal meingoencephalitis
swimming in freshwater lakes
(fresh water in nalgene bottle)
amoebas in spinal fluid

19

trypanosoma brucei

african sleeping sickness
enlarged lymph nodes, recurring fever, somnolence, coma
tsetse fly (painful bite)
Tx: suramin, melarsoprol

20

plasmodium vivax/ovale

48hr cycle
dormant hypnozoite in liver

21

P. falciparum

severe, irregular fever patterns
cerebral malaria

22

P. malariae

72hr cycle

23

Dx of malaria

trophozoite ring w/in RBC
red granules, schuffner stipping

24

babesia

babesiosis
fever, hemolytic anemia
NE US
asplenic increased rick
often co-infection w/Lyme
Maltese cross on blood smear

25

trypanosoma cruzi

chagas disease
dilated cardiomyopathy
megacolon/esophagus
south america
U/L periorbital swelling (Romana sign) in acute stage
Reducid (kissing) bug

26

leishmania donovani

visceral leishmaniasis
spiking fevers, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia
sandfly
amastigotes in macros

27

Trichomonas vaginalis

strawberry cervix

28

enterobisu vericularis

fecal-oral
aka pin worms
Tx: bendazoles

29

ascaris lumbricoides

F-O
eggs visible in feces under microscope
intestinal infection
Tx: bendazoles

30

stronyloides

larvae in soil penetrate skin
intestinal infection
Ivermectin or bendazoles

31

ancylosoma duodenale and nector americanus

hookworms
larvae penetrate skin
intestinal infection
bendazoles or pyrantal pamoate

32

trichinella spiralis

F-O, undercooked pork
intestinal infection
trichinosis-fever, vomiting, periorbital edema, myalgia
bendazoles

33

onchocerca volvulus

female blackfly bite
hyperpigmented skin and river blindess
ivermetin

34

loa loa

deer fly, horse, fly, mango fly
swelling in skin, worm in conjunctiva
diethylcarbamazine

35

Wuchereria bancrofti

female mosquito
elphantiasis (takes 9mo-1yr)
diethylcarbamazine

36

toxocara canis

F-O
visceral larva migrans
bendazoles

37

which nematodes are ingested?

EATT
Enterobius
Ascaris
Toxocara
Trichinella

38

Which nematodes enter cutaneously

SANd
Strongyloides
Ancylostoma
Necator

39

Which nematodes enter via a bite?

LOW
Loa loa
Onchocerca volvulus
Wuchereria bancrofti

40

taenia solium encysted in undercooked pork

tapeworm
GI infection
Tx praziquantel

41

tanenia solium eggs

tapeworm
cysticercosis, neurocysticercosis
Tx praziquantel, albendazole for neuro

42

Diphyllobothrium latum

tapeworm
ingestion of larvae from raw freshwater fish
Vit B12 deficiency -> megaloblastic anemia
Tx praziquantel

43

Echinococcus granulosus

tapeworm
ingestion of eggs from dog feces
sheep intermediate host
hydatid cysts in liver (must inject w/ethanol before removal)
Tx albendazole

44

schistosoma haematobium

fluke
snails host, cercariae penetrate skin of humans
hepatosplenomegaly
SCC of bladder and pulmonary HTN
Tx praziwuantel

45

Clonorchis sinenssi

undercooked fish
biiary tract inflammation -> pigmented gallstones
assocaited w/cholangiocarcinoma
Tx praziquantel

46

biliary tract disease, cholangiocarcinoma

clonorchis sinensis (trematode)

47

brain cysts seizures

tanenia solium (tapeworm)

48

hematuria, SCC bladder

Schistosoma haematobium

49

liver (hydatid) cysts

Echinococcus ganulosus (tapeworm)

50

microcytic anemia

Ancylostoma, Necator

51

Myalgia, periorbital edema

Trichinella spiralis

52

perianal pruritus

enterobius

53

portal HTN

Schistosoma

54

Vit B deficiency

diphyllobothrium latum