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Flashcards in endo Deck (69):
1

layers of adrenal Cx

GFR, the deeper you go the sweeter it gets

2

what is the most common adrenal medulla tumor in adults?

pheo

3

what is the most common adrenal medulla tumor in kids?

neuroblastoma

4

ant pit

adenohypophysis
FLAT-PiG
FSH
LH
ACTH
TSH
Prolactin
GH

5

which ant pit hormones are acidophils

GH and prolactin

6

which ant pit hormones are basophils?

B-FLAT
basophils
FSH
LH
ACTH
TSH

7

what is ant pit derived from

Rathke pouch - oral ectoderm

8

intermediate lobe of pit

grouped w/ant
secreted MSH

9

post pit

neurohypophysis
vasopressein/ADH (from supraoptic)
oxytocin (from paraventricular)

10

what is post pit derived from?

neuroectoderm

11

endocrine pancreas cells

alpha- glucagon (peripheral)
beta- insulin (central)
delat- somatostatin

12

insulin sysnthesis

preproinsulin synth in RER
cleavage -> proinsulin
cleavage -> exo of both insulin and C-peptide

13

insulin R

tyrosine kinase -> increased PI3 and RAS/MAP for TFs

14

insulin effects

increased glucose into mm and adipose
increase glyocogen synth
increased TG synth
increased Na retention
increaed protein synth
increased cellular uptake of K and aa
decreased glucagon
does not cross placenta

15

GLUT-4

adipose and striated mm
insulin dependent
exercise increases expression

16

GLUT-1

RBCs, brain, cornea
insulin independent

17

GLUT-2

beta cells
liver
kidney
small intestines
bidirectional
insulin independent

18

GLUT-3

brain
insulin independent

19

GLUT-5

spermatocytes
GI
fructose
insulin independent

20

what inhibits glucagon

insulin
hyperglycemia
somatostatin

21

CRH overview

increases ACTH, MSH, and beta-endorphin
decreased in chronic exogenous steroid use

22

Dopamine overview

decreases prolactin
dopamine antagonists can cause galactorhea

23

GHRN overview

increased GH
analog (Tesaorelin) used to Tx HIV-associated lipodystrophy

24

GnRH overview

increased FSH, LH
regulated by porlactin
tonic GnRH supresses HPA
pulsatile causes puberty and fertility

25

Prolactin overview

decreased GnRH
pit prolactinoma -> amenorrhea, osteoporosis, hypogonadism, galactorhea

26

somatostatin overview

decreased GH, TSH
analogs used to Tx acromegaly

27

TRH overview

increased TSH, prolactin

28

prolactin fnx

secreted from ant pit
stimulates milk production
inhibitis ovulation and permatogenesis by inhibiting GnRH
excessive amounts decrease libido

29

regulation of prolactin

tonically inhibited by dopamine from hypothalamus
prolactin inhibits itself by increases dopamine
TRH increases prolactin

30

dopamine agonists

bromocriptine
inhibits prolactin secretion

31

dopamine antagonists

antiphyschotics and Estrogens
stimulate prolactin secretion

32

GH aka

somatotropin

33

GH fnx

ant pit
stimulates linear growth and mm mass via IGF-1 (somatomedin C)
increased insulin resistance

34

regulation of GH

pulses in response to GHRH
secretion increased during exercise and sleep
inhibited by glucose and somatostatin

35

ghrelin

stimulates hunger (orexigenic effect) and GH release
produced by stomach
increased w/sleep loss and Prader-Willi syndrome

36

leptin

satiety hormone
produced by adipose
mutation -> congenital obesity
sleep deprivation -> increased leptin

37

ADH fnx

synth by hypothalamus supraoptic nuclei
released by post pit
regulates serum osmolarity via V2Rs
regulated BP via V1Rs
increased aquaporin Ch insertion in renal collecting duct

38

Desmopressin

ADH analog Tx of central DI

39

17alpha hydroxylase deficiency

increases mineralcorticoids
decreased cortisol
decreased sex hormones
increased BP
decreased K
decreased androdtenedione

40

male presentation of 17alpha hydroxylase deficiency

pseudo-hermaphroditism

41

female presentation of 17alpha hydroxylase deficiency

lack secondary sex characteristics

42

21- hydroxylase deficiency

MC
decreased mineralcorticoids
decreased cortisol
increased sex hormones
decreased BP
increased K
increased renin
increased 17-hydroxyprogesterone

43

21- hydroxylase deficiency presentation

infants w/salt wasting
childhood precocrious puberty
XX- virulization
no virulization of prego mom

44

11 beta hydroxylase deficiency

decreased aldosterone
increased 11-deoxycorticosterone
decreased cortisol
increaed sex hormones
increased BP
decreased K
decreased renin
XX virulization

45

11 beta hydroxylase deficiency presentation

XX virulization
no virulization of prego mom

46

cortisol source

from adrenal zona fasiculata
bound to corticosteroid binding globulin

47

cortisol fnx

BIG FIB
increased BP
increased Insulin resistance
increased Gluconeogenesis, lipolysis, and proteolysis
decreased Fibroblasts
decreased inflammatory and Immune responses
decreased bone formation

48

cortisol and increased BP

upregulated alpha-1 Rs
at high concentrations can bind mineralcorticoids Rs

49

cortisol and fibroblasts

striaw

50

cortisol and immune system

inhibits production of leukotrienes and PGs
inhibits WBC adhesion
blocks H2 release from mast cells
reduces eos
blocks IL-2
exogenous corticosteroids can reactivate TB and candidiasis via IL-2 blockade

51

cortisol and bone

inhibits osteoblasts

52

cortisol regulation

CRH -> ACTH -> cortisol
excess cortisol -> decreased CRH, ACTH, and cortisol secretion

53

PTH regulation

decreased Ca -> increased PTH
decreased Phos -> increased PTH
decreased Mg -> increased PTH
very decreased Mg -> decreased PTH

54

common cause of decreased Mg

diarrhea
aminoglycosides
diuretics
alcohol abuse

55

which hormones act via cAMP

FLAT ChAMP
FSH
LH
ACTH
TSH
CRH
hCG
ADH (V2)
MSH
PTH
calcintonin
GHRH
glucagon

56

which hormones act via cGMP?

ANP
BNP
NO

57

which hormones act via IP3

GOAT HAG
GnRH
Oxytocin
ADH (V1)
TRH
H1R
Angiotensin II
Gastin

58

which hormones act via intracellular Rs

VETTT CAP
vit D
E
T
T3/4
Cortisol
Aldosterone
Progesterone

59

which hormones act via intrinsic tyrosine kinase

insulin
IGF-1
FGF
PFG
PDGF
EGF

60

which hormones act via R-associated TK?

PIGGlET
Prolactin
Immunomodulators
GH
G-CSF
Erythropoietin
Thrombopoietin

61

T3/4 source

contain I
follicles of thyroid
T3 formed in target tissues

62

T3/4 fnx

4B's
Brain maturation
Bone growth
Beta adrenergic effects
BMR increased

63

what decreases TGB

hepatic failure, steroids

64

what increases TGB?

prego
OCP
E

65

regulation of TH

TRH -> TSH -> stimulates follicles -> T4
neg feedback by free T3/T4 to ant pit decreased sensitivity to TRH

66

wolff-chaikoff effect

excess I -> temporarily inhibits thyroid peroxidase -> decreased T3/4

67

peroxidase

oxidation and organification of I
coupling of MIT and DIT

68

PTU

inhibits both peroxidase and 5' deiodinase

69

methimazole

inhibits peroxidase only