What age group wins in the new STD category?
Name 7 special populations that have high risks of STDs
What are the risks/concerns with each population
1. Pregnant women- threat to pregnancy and fetus and toxicity of treatment to fetus
2. Adolescents- high risk and non-compliance with treatment
3. Rape Victims- psychological/physical trauma, age
4. Commercial sex workers- high risk
5. Men who have sex with men- HIGHEST risk of STDs
6. Women who have sex with women- traditionally LOWEST rates of STDs
7. IV drug users- high risk and likely transmission through needle use. Sex and drugs tend to go together
1. Size and shape
2. Gram stain
3. Intracellular or extracelluar organism?
4. What is special about their peptidoglycan layer?
5. What are the two distinct stages in life cycle?
1. Small cocci
2. Gram negative like envelope
3. INTRACELLULAR parasite
4. They don't have one
5. Elementary bodies (infectious) and reticulate bodies (replicative form)
Which chlamydia body is adapted for the extracellular environment?
Which chlamydia body is adapted for intracellular life/growth?
1. Elementary body and is infectious
2. Reticulate body and it likes to replicate
Chlamydia trachomatis causes what two types of infections?
1. Eye infections
2. UG infections
1. Infection host
2. Blovars (2)
3. Favorite cells to infect and locations of such cells (7)
4. What cells are destroyed? What is the immune response?
5. What happens without treatment?
6. What disease states can c. trachomatis cause? (5)
1. Humans are only host. No other vectors
2. Trachoma and LGV
3. Infects nociliated epithelium of urethra, endocervic, endometrium, fallopian tubes, anorectum, respiratory tract, and conjunctivae
4. Epithelial cells are destroyed by infection and inflammatory response of immune system
5. Without treatment, inflammation can turn into fibrosis which can cause infertility
6. Trachoma, inclusion conjunctivitis, STI/UG infections, lymphagranuloma venereum, and infant pneumonia
1. Serovars are based on what?
2. What is the most invasive serovar? Why?
1. Serovars are based on antigenic variation in major outer membrane proteins (MOMPs)
2. Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) serovars are the more invasive because they replicate in mononuclear phagocytes
What is trachoma?
Which type of chlamydia causes it?
How is it transmitted?
What is the leading cause of preventable blindness in the world?
1. Chronic inflammation of the eye
2. C. trachomatis
3. Transmitted eye-to-eye by droplets, hands, contaminated clothing, and flies
4. Chronic chlamydia is leading cause of preventable blindness
Sexually active adults get which kind of conjunctivitis?
What are the symptoms?
Neonates get which kind of conjunctivitis?
1. Adults get acute conjunctivitis. Symptoms are mucopurulent discharge, keratitis, corneal infiltrates, and corneal vascularization
2. Neonates get neonatal conjunctivitis. Swollen eyelids after birth. Treatment is erythromycin ointment
What is the most common STD (bacterial) in the U.S.?
How do men present with C. trachomatis?
How about the penis?
What syndrome are we worried about?
Urethritis presents with dysuria and mucopurulent discharge
Complications: epididymitis, prostratitis
Reiter Syndrome: urethritis, conjunctivitis, and polyarthritis
How to women present with C. Trachomatis?
3. Can progress to? Which causes 3 bad things
1. 80% of infections are asymptomatic
2. Mucopurulent discharge
3. Can cause Pelvic Inflammatory Disease which can cause scarring, sterility, or ectopic pregnancy