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D1S U1 Microbiology > Bailey Study Guide > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bailey Study Guide Deck (21):
1

6 Steps to Infectious Disease process:

1. Encounter
2. Entry
3. Spread
4. Multiplication
5. Damage
6. Outcome

2

Entry into host can happen in 2 ways:

1. Ingress (inhale/ingest)
2. Penetration

3

Penetration of bacteria involves 2 steps:

1. Attachment
2. Internalization

4

"Spread" of infection can have two meanings:

1. Lateral propagation (movement)
2. Dissemination

5

4 outcomes of host-parasite interaction:

1. Host wins, clears infection
2. Parasite overcomes host
3. Host and parasite adapt to each other
4. Neither win -> chronic infection

6

Gram positive bacteria have a ___ cell wall made of ____, which is made up of long chains of ___ and ___ linked together by short polypeptides.

Thick
Murein (peptidoglycan)

NAG
NAM

7

Gram negative bacteria have a ___ layer of murein between two membranes (lipid bilayer).

Thin

8

The outside of the outer membrane of gram negative bacteria is made up of ____, which is toxic, that varies among different bacteria.

LPS (lipopolysaccharide)

9

Antibiotics often work by targeting bacterial ____

Ribosomes

10

Subunits of bacterial ribosomes:

1. 30S- translation of RNA
2. 50S- joins AA together and moves complex along mRNA

11

Sulfonamides and trimethoprim inhibit _____.

Folic acid metabolism

12

Aminoglycosides (streptomycin, kanamycin), tetracyclines, and erythromycin inhibit ____.

Protein synthesis

13

Metronidazole inhibits ____

DNA synthesis

14

____ are specialized structures that link a donor cell to a recipient cell during DNA transfer

Sex Pili

15

____ are surface structures used for locomotion.

Clockwise rotation:

Counterclockwise rotation:

Flagella

Tumbling

Movement

16

The movement towards substances that attract and away from substances that repel

Chemotaxis

17

Ratio between effective and toxic dose of an antibiotic.

Therapeutic Index

18

Bacteria become resistant to antibiotics by:

1. Synthesizing enzymes that inactive drugs
2. Inhibit uptake of drug
3. Increase secretion of drug (out of cell)
4. Modifying target of drug

19

Drug resistant genes are often found on ____ that can be transferred readily from one bacteria to another

Plasmids

20

In order to survive as an infectious agent, bacteria must:

1. Avoid being washed away
2. Find nutritional niche
3. Survive host defense
4. Transfer to new host

21

Bacteria are often classified via their ____.

Surface Antigen (Serotype)

O = LPS
H = Flagella
K = Capsule