Flashcards in Bailey Study Guide Deck (21):
6 Steps to Infectious Disease process:
Entry into host can happen in 2 ways:
1. Ingress (inhale/ingest)
Penetration of bacteria involves 2 steps:
"Spread" of infection can have two meanings:
1. Lateral propagation (movement)
4 outcomes of host-parasite interaction:
1. Host wins, clears infection
2. Parasite overcomes host
3. Host and parasite adapt to each other
4. Neither win -> chronic infection
Gram positive bacteria have a ___ cell wall made of ____, which is made up of long chains of ___ and ___ linked together by short polypeptides.
Gram negative bacteria have a ___ layer of murein between two membranes (lipid bilayer).
The outside of the outer membrane of gram negative bacteria is made up of ____, which is toxic, that varies among different bacteria.
Antibiotics often work by targeting bacterial ____
Subunits of bacterial ribosomes:
1. 30S- translation of RNA
2. 50S- joins AA together and moves complex along mRNA
Sulfonamides and trimethoprim inhibit _____.
Folic acid metabolism
Aminoglycosides (streptomycin, kanamycin), tetracyclines, and erythromycin inhibit ____.
Metronidazole inhibits ____
____ are specialized structures that link a donor cell to a recipient cell during DNA transfer
____ are surface structures used for locomotion.
The movement towards substances that attract and away from substances that repel
Ratio between effective and toxic dose of an antibiotic.
Bacteria become resistant to antibiotics by:
1. Synthesizing enzymes that inactive drugs
2. Inhibit uptake of drug
3. Increase secretion of drug (out of cell)
4. Modifying target of drug
Drug resistant genes are often found on ____ that can be transferred readily from one bacteria to another
In order to survive as an infectious agent, bacteria must:
1. Avoid being washed away
2. Find nutritional niche
3. Survive host defense
4. Transfer to new host