Flashcards in Clostridium Deck (18):
1. Gram Stain?
2. Oxygen tolerance?
3. Produce what?
1. Gram positive rods
2. Strictly anaerobic
Metabolically inactive state in which organisms can remain viable for hundreds of year. Resistant to adverse condition (heat, drying, radiation, chemicals). Caused by unfavorable environment. Readily germinate when conditions become favorable for vegetative growth.
"Difficult clostridium" (Not easy to culture). Leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea. Endospore transmission. Harbored in large intestine (dormant). Disease state usually associated with antimicrobial drugs (kills off everything else and allows this to grow)
C. Difficile Toxins:
1. Toxin A- Enterotoxin (fluid production, damage to mucosa)
2. Toxin B- Cytotoxin (rounding of tissue-culture cells)
Both C. Difficile toxins act in cytoplasm of host cell to glycosylate _____, causing cells to lose cytoskeletal structure and die
Found in soil in intestinal tract of animals. Environmental pathogen. Major in wound infections (and war wounds). Local damage and systemic effects. Toxins -> Gas gangrene, necrotizing.
Type of wound that C. Perfringens thrives in:
2. Compromised blood supply
3. Calcium ions
4. Availability of peptides and amino acids
C. Perfringens toxin that damages cell membranes and causes gas gangrene.
C. Perfringens Treatment/Prevention
1. Surgical removal of infected muscle
3. Prompt care imperative
C. Perfringens is also the third most common type of food poisoning. Sporulating C. Perfringens produce ____ in intestines. -> Diarrhea
Lives in soils and marine sediments. Heat-resistant spores (not toxins), can survive food processing. Bioweapon. Toxins very poisonous.
C. Botulinum toxin prevents release of ______. -> Paralysis
Three types of Botulism:
2. Wound botulism (rare)
3. Infant botulism
C. Botulinum Treatment
1. 25% mortality rate
2. Trivalent antitoxin (from horses) administered ASAP
3. Some permanent muscle damage
4. No antibiotics necessary (because it's the toxin only)
C. Tetani major toxin:
Tetanospasmin attaches to peripheral nerves near wound and is transmitted to _____. Causes reflex spasms, spastic paralysis.
Cranial Nerve nuclei
Lockjaw caused by Tetanus.