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Flashcards in Basic and Applied Sciences Deck (70):
1

basal ganglia

-brings together emotion, executive fx, motivation, and motor activities
-involved in posture, walking, eye movements, moderate motor expression of emotional states, memory, cognition, emotion controls extrapyrmadial motor tract
-subcortical group of gray matter nuclei, appear to mediate POSTURAL TONE
-made up of STRIATUM, PALLIDUM, SUBSTANTIA NIGRA, SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS
-motor and association areas
-components of corpus striatum (caudate and putmen)
motor and association areas, caudate acts as a gatekeeper and is goal directed motor

2

abnormal/impairment of basal ganglia

slow movements, rigidity, cog-wheel rigidity, dystonia
-striatum-OCD, TICS, tourrettes syndrome
cognitive and emotinal px, EPS
-pladium: flapping movements of arms and legs
-subthalamic nucleus: jerky movements
-substantia nigra: impaired production of dopamine (Parkinsonism sx)

3

Motor system consists of?

basal ganglia (striatum, pallidum, substantia nigra and subthalamic nucleus)
cerebelum
motor cortex
autonomic motor system

4

corpus striatum (caudate and putamen)

contains both motor and association systems and is part of the basal ganglia

5

caudate nucleus

part of basal ganglia and acts as a gate keeper for goal directed movements

6

globus pallidus

contains 2 parts
-1 part in the putamen and receives input for corpus striatum and projects fibers to the thalamus
(Wilson's disease can have significant damage to this area)
(damage will cause flapping movements and dystonic posturing)

7

substantia nigra

has two parts equivalent to globus pallidus interna and the other part is associated with PD (rigidity, tremors, depression)

8

subthalamic nucleus

yield ballistic movements, sudden limb jerks, projectile moevements

9

cerebellum

has simple 6 cell pattern circuitry replicate 10 million times; it is activated serveral miliseconds before planned movement
-px with cerebellum result in coarse, tremulous movements
-it modulates the tone of agnistic and antagonistic muscles by predicting relative contraction needed for smooth motion
-it is active even with just imagining moving
-cognitive learning, memory, impulse control

10

motor cortex

individual cells in motor strip cause contraction of single muscles
-the supplementary motor area, Brodmann's area 6, contains cells that individually stimulated can trigger more complex movements by influencing a firing sequence of motor strip cells

11

Autonomic Motor system

sensory component and motor components, sympathetic and parasympathetic
-hypothalamus drives this system

12

frontal lobe function

determines how we act on our knowledge
contains 4 lobes (motor strip, supplemental motor area, Broca's area, and PFC)
(PFC contains orbitofrontal, dorsolateral and medial)
-any changes effect personality

13

executive funcitons

motivation
attention
sequential actions
sequencing

14

limbic system

contains hippocampus, fornix, mamillary bodies, anterior nucleas of thalamus, and cingulate gyrus, amgydala, septum, basal forebrain, nucleus accumbens, orbitofrontal cortex
-emotional processing, assigns emotions, emotional association areas
-amygdala is gate for internal and external stimuli integration and puts emotional meaning, powerful influence on cortex, more potent than the cortex on the amygdala
-damage causes px to distinguish fear and anger in expressions and voices
-limbic systems houses emotional association areas that direct hypothalamus to express motor and endocrine components of emotional states

15

what side is language?

-left hemisphere
Broca's: language production and comprehension
Wernicke's: understanding meaning to words

16

Arousal and attention

brainstem 3 areas: ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) that projects to the intralaminar nuclei of thalamus to cortex
-during wakefulness ARAS stimulates the thalamus then stimulates regions of the cortex

17

memory

immediate-few seconds
recent-minutes to days
remote-months to years
working memory: immediate and recent
-crtical formation: 1. medial temporal lobe which houses hippocampus
2. amydala-rates emtional importance of memories and activates hippocampus accordingly
3. diencephalon-dorsalomedial nucleus of thalamus and mammary bodies

18

Left and right hemisphere funcitons

Left hemispheres house analytical mind, less of emotion, more intelligence order; speech, knowledge of language, thinking math and reasoning; describe and explain things, places and places them in time and sequence, production of speech, writing, depression, frustration, sadness, apathy,

Right hemisphere dominant for affect, socialization, body image; right can recall nonverbal memories and negative memories; expression of emotions, recognizes facial expression, images, music, visual imagery, REM sleep and day dreams

19

damage to amygdala of limbic system

causes px to distinguish fear and anger in expression and voices

20

olfactory system

-odorant recpeotrs in nose, each neuron has unique odorant receptors, random in location
-odorant binding generates neural impulses that travel to olfactory bulb (unique to receptor), this projects to olfactory cortical calumn that is turned to differentiate
-the olfacotry signals do not project through thalamus but go straight to cortex, frotal lobe and limibc system, especially the pyriform cortex
-this role of limbic system innervation has significance because alot of smells have emotional responses

21

Visual systems

I. primary visual cortex-cells project to secondary visual cortex
II. cells respond specifically to particular movements of linfes and angles; they then project to two association areas where additional features are extracted and conscious awareness of images forms
-inferior temporal lobe detects what it is; shape/color/form
-posterior parietal lobe detects where it is: tracks location/motion/distance
-parietal lobe then decides to look deeper in part of the visual space or to reach for object
-inferior temporal cortices, adjacent to cortical columns respond to complex forms
-response to facial features: left inferior temporal cortices and complex shapes are in right
-visual spatial orientation involves both right and left hemispheres
(right exp parietal lobe contributes overall contour, perspective and right to left orientation)
(left adds internal detail, embellishment and complexity)

22

which hemisphere is involved in visual spatial orientation?

both left and right
1. right, especially the parietal lobe, contributes to overall contour and perspective and right to left orientation
2. left adds internal detail, embellishment, and complexity

23

sensory systems

somatosensory system-light touch, pressure, pain, temperature, vibration, proprioception
-has point to point connections from body surface to brain
-reciprical connections (fibers from cortex to thalamus and the thalamus to cortex) help to filter and sharpen internal representation of stimuli

24

neuroimaging of brain

CT-structural brain lesions (tumors, strokes)

MRI-distinguish gray and white matter better

-want to neuroimage if any examination can be localized to brain or spinal cord

25

CNS resions

1. frontal: behavior, emotions, personality, intellectual funciton
Broca's area-mediates motor speech (expressive aphasia)
2. parietal-primary center for sensations
3. occipital- visual receptor center
4. temporal-primary auditory with funciton in hearing, taste, smell
Wernicke's-language understanding (receptive aphasia)

-thalamus: main relay station
-hypothalamus: respiratory center, basic vital funcitons
-cerebellum: motor coordination, coordinates and smooths movement

26

brain stem

1. mid brain: most on anterior part of stem; basic tubular structure of spinal cord; merges thalamus and hypothalamus; contains many motor neurons and traits
2. pons: enlarged area that contains ascending sensory and descending motor tracts
3. medulla: continuation of spinal cord; contains all ascending and descending fiber tracts; has vital autonomic centers; crossing of fibers occurs here (decussation)

27

nucleus accumbens

part of basal ganglia: modulates limbic system
REWARD and PLEASURE

28

impairment of nucleus accumbens

methamphetamines use can cause impairment
will cause flatt affect, social isolation, loss of interest and lack of motivation,
substance abuse

29

septal nuclei

mattures at 7 months
quiets and dampens down responses of rage
involved in socialization and development of attachment
involved in pleasre and reward and sexual pleasure
-impairment: hypersexuality, social sickness (intrusive, inappropriate), may be due to lack of nurturing

30

hippocampus

"memory structures"
-regulates info going to neocortex
-involved in memory, learning, and long term memories
-retrieving info
"builds cognitive maps"
assigns time and place to events

31

impairment of hippocampus

unable to pay attention, learn new things, and remember or alter per-existing learning
-memory deficits (PTSD and decrease in volume in depression, may be reversible)

32

cingulate gyrus

integrates emotional info before convening that infor to hypothalamus and neocortex
-assigns emotional value to stimuli
-regulates ANS, endocrin, and motor fx
-retrieval of short term memories, brings together emotion, executive fx, motivation, and motor action
-posture, walking, eye movement
-controls extra pyramidal motor tract

33

impairment to cingulate gyrus

impairs ability to read facial expressions,
-apathy, flat affect
-indifference, deviant social behavior
-increased activity can cause ticks and OCD
-decreased activity in depressions and reduced response to pain

34

corpus callosum

bundle of neuronal axons that connect both hemispheres
-continues to develop until mid 20s

35

impairment to copus callosum

impairment to transfer infor to other hemispheres
-congenital damage can continue to adult hood
-inability to understand jokes, humor, and only concrete thinking

36

pons

relays info from cerebral hemispheres to cerebellum (motor)

37

midbrain

controls sensory and motor fx including eye movements (motor and sensory)

38

hypothalamus

pleasure, reward, aversion, rage,
-regulates ANS, hormones, pituitary

39

damage to hypothalamus

damage can increase appetite, emotional liability/instability, changes in body temperature, sleep px, sexual px, aggression, violence, depression, dementia, uncontrollable laughter or crying

40

medula

regulates BP, R, digestion, reflex center for vomiting, coughing, sneezing, swallowing, hiccups (contains vital ANS areas)

41

thalamus

gates info from neocortex
-processes everthing coming from senses, amygdala, and crebellum
-wakefullness, sleep, pain perception

42

damage to thalamus

can cause distrubed perception, apathy, drowsy, no longer have a filter=flooded thoughts
sx similar to negative schizophrenia sx
there is a decrease volume of thalamus in those with schizophrenia

43

amygdala

-anxiety, rage, anger
-regulates fear response to stress, evaluates friendliness, fear love and affection and distrust, anger
=establish emotional memories

44

damage to amygdala

irritable, anger, aggression, hyper-religious, sexual preoccupation, unable to recognize ppl, may put things in mouth to identify them, insatiable appetite

45

damage to cerebellum

-balance, walking, standing, ataxia, tremors, nystagmus, abnormalities with executive fx, emotional blunting, depression, lack of inhibition, inappropriate behavior, unable to initiate task
psychotic sx

46

cerebral cortex

gray matter made of neurons-some on surface but most burried in sulci fissures
memory storage and recall
speaking and understanding music, math, paying attention, interpreting sensory input, recognize ppl, places, emotional epxressions, planning goal directed behaviors (grooves=sulci and fold tops gyri)

47

damage to right hemisphere

px with interpreting speech, flat monotone speech
concrete intepretation of what is said
loss ability to sing or recognize music, lost or disoriented
px with drawing face of clock
memory deficits, pain perception deficits, px recognizing faces, mania or irritability, impulsivity and promiscuity

48

damage to left hemisphere

-damage to broca's area can understand language but have a px with expressive speech (expressive aphasia)

49

Brain communication

1. neurons make up the gray matter of the barin and convey and recieve messages
2. glial cells make up the white matter of the brain and suppor, nurture and protect the neurons

50

glial cells

oligodendrocytes produce mylin for brain neurons
schwann cells produce mylen for PNS

51

astrocytes
microglia cells

-astrocytes nourish the neurons and form the blood brain barrier
-microglia cells remove debris

52

norepinephrine comes from

synthisized in locus ceruleous of brain stem

53

dopamine comes from

substantia nigra in brain stem
(thinking, decision making, response to reward, integration of thoughts and emotions, fine muscle movements)

54

serotonin and melatonin comes from

synthesized from tryptophan found in grains, meats, and dairy products

55

histamine comes from

from amino acid histidine
-located in hypothalamus and fibers that project to cerebral cortex, limbic system and thalamus
-regulate brain fx, regulate biorhythms, enuroendocrine fx, immune and inflammatory response and stimulate gastric sections
-influence arousal, attention, food and water intake, sleep wake cycles, response to pain, release of oxytocin and prolactin and ACTH

56

glutamate comes from

in cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, striatum, cerebellum, spinal cord
-excitatory, involved in memory storage, thought to be involved in epilepsy, schizophrenia, and amyotropoic lateral sclerosis

57

aspartate found in

spinal cord
excitatory

58

bama-amnobutyric acid (GABA)

inhibitory
precursor for GABA is glutamate
-involved in reducing aggression, anxiety, excitement, sleep and muscle relation
-prevents glutamate fro excessive stimulation

59

glycine

inhibits neuronal firing and modulates aciotn of glutamate

60

adenosine

inhibitory

61

acetylcholine

primary in motor of PNS
from choline; involved in preparing for action, defensive aggressive and in attention learning and memory
-controls salvation, GI mobility, pupil size, shape of lense and mucus secretion

62

vasopressin

anti-diuretic hormone
decreased in depression and increased in mania

63

cholecystokinin (CCK)

anxiety d/o, panick attacks, depression

64

corticotropin-releeasing factor (CRF)
HPA axis

increases production of cortisol; involved in cognition, adaptation to stress, mood, and memory;
-increased in depression
decreased in mania
may be involved in AD

65

substance P

involves pain perception, anxiety, memory, and neurochemical response to stress; increased in pts with schizophrenia and depression

66

acronym for frontal lobe LIMP

Langauge
Intelligence
Motor fx
Personality

67

acronym for temporal lobe LAME

Language
Affective component of speech
Memory
Emotion

68

acronym for parietal lobes VAST

Visual spatial
Association cortex
Symbolic recognition
Topographic sense

69

acronym for occipital lobes VIP

Visual cortex
Integration area
Primary visual cortex

70

neurotransmission

1.polarization/resting potential: Na and Ca outside cell and K in
excitation: Na and Ca rush inside and K rushes outside cell
2. repolarization: K outside, Na inside
3. Hyperpolarization: more K outside then Na inside
4. inhibitory is when either neurotransmisiossion occurs or Cl replaces K in cell

BZD cause hyperpolarization
erratic depolarization is caused by mania and other d/o