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Flashcards in Terminology Deck (43):
1

akathesia

feeling inner restlessness, fidget, restless,
may feel uncomfortable

2

ataxia

unsteady gait, swaying feet wide a part, px walking straight line (heel to toe); uncordinated
-dysmetria-misjudge distance to target
-asynergia-breakdown of movement, irregular, clumsy

3

athetosis

slow, writhing, continuous, involuntary (cerebral palsy)

4

chorea

involuntary, irregular, purposeless, nonrhythmic, abrupt, rapid or unstained movement

5

dyskinesia

generally any abnormal involuntary movement

6

dystonia

refers to twisting movements and postures that tend to be sustained at peak of movement, patterned, repetitive
-can effect eye lids: blepharospasms
-voice: spasmodic dysphonia
-neck-spasmodic torticollis, cervical dystonia
-hand-writer's cramp
-generalized-one or both legs, trunk or other body part

7

agnosia

inability to Process sensory infor; px with recognizing objects, persons, sounds, shapes, smells
-occipitotemporal border

8

apraxia

d/o of motor planing not coordination (incoordination is ataxia)

9

oculogyric crisis

usually side effect of neuroleptic drug; a acute dystonic reaction;
-initial sx: restlessness, agitaiton, malaise, fixed stare
-followed by maximal upward deviation of the eyes in sustained fashion; may deviate laterally and or downward
-common to have lateral and backwards flexion of the neck, widely opened mouth, tongue protrusion, and ocular pain
-it can occur as a recurrent syndrome triggered by stress and exposure to the drugs

10

Tardive dyskinesia

rarely seen until after 6 months of treatment; abnormal involuntary, irregular choreoathetoid movements of muscles of head, limbs, trunk

11

torticollis

twisting of neck, fixed irregular neck positions, can be painful
-can be tilted (laterocollis)
-can be twisted to one side (rotational torticollis)
-forward (anterocollis)
-backward (retrocollis)
-movements can be sustained or jerky (myoclonic torticollis)
-can develop gradually, may have tremor begin

12

differentiating TD, dystonic reactions, and parkinsonism symptoms

dystonic reactions: intermittent or sustained muscle action involuntary, can be painful and uncomfortable and can cause fear and agitation (acute is within 24-48 hours of tx); responds will to anti-parkinson meds/no rating scales for acute dystonia

tardive dystonia is distiguished from acute dystonia by duration (Tardive dystonia is chronic)

parkinsonism start insidiously within days of meds, dose dependent; gradually sx subside and tolerance may develop; have rigidity of limbs with resistance to passive movements (cog-wheel rigidity), tremors and bradykinesia; several rating scales; tx reducing dose or changing med, or adding anticholinergic;

Tardive dyskinesia (develop after chronic exposure to neuroleptics for about 6 months; usually use AIMS scale; usually involves face, tongue;

13

epidemic

a widespread occurence of an infectionus disease in a community, population

14

endemic

native or restricted to a certain country or area/regularly found amoung particular people or in a certain area

15

nursing research

systematic inquiry that uses disciplined methods to answer questions in nursing or solve nursing px

16

nursing theory

provide framework for nursing interventions and predict outcomes that impact nursing practice

17

evidenced based practice

involves using the best evidence in making patient care decisions such as evidece from research conducted by healthcare professionals

18

validity

measures what it is supposed to measure
-matter of degree, approximate truth

19

internal validity

r/o that something else could have causedit

20

construct validity

validity from observed persons, settings, etc

21

external validity

will it hold over time? can it be applied to others? generalized?

22

reliability

consistency, less variation the great ther reliability; accuracy

23

stability

similar scores on separate occasions

24

reliability coefficient

index of magnitude of tests reliability
**should be usually 0.80 or higher
**to make decisions about individuals it should ideally be 0.90 or greater

25

correlation coefficient

tool for qualitatively describing magnitude and direction of relationship between 2 variables

26

coefficient alpha (Cronback's alpha)

ranges from 0.00-1.00
higher values = higher internal consistency
(internal consistency is the ability to measure the same trait; usually homogenous)

27

internal consistency

homogenous, ability to measure same trait

28

Pearson r

(Product-moment correlation coefficient)
measures association between 2 variables
1. ranges:
-1.00 perfect neg correlation
0 no relationship
+1.00 perfect positive correlation

29

secondary data analysis

collected from someone else

30

descriptive mixed methods

descriptive (observation/describe/documenting aspects) mixed (combining qualitative and quantitative)

31

pilot study

small scale, like a trial run, tests methods to be sued in a larger scale; not substantive in primary purpose the point is to try on small before try on large group to see if it is worth it

32

agraphia

dont understand written language

33

aphasia

partial or complete loss of language abilities

34

angnosia

cannot recognize and identify objects or ppl

35

apraxia

loss of ability to execute or carry out skilled movements and gestures despite having desire and physical ability

36

prognosia

distrubed ability to recognize faces

37

ataxia

lack of muscle control, uncoordinated

38

anosmia

loss of sense of smell

39

hyperosmia

increased olfactory sensitivity

40

agonist

fits receptor

41

antagonist

blocks receptor
(antagonizes)

42

down regulation

decreases the rate of neurotransmitter receptor synthesis (takes days to weeks)
-decreases receptors

43

up regulation

increases receptor synthesis
-increases receptors