Flashcards in Child Development Deck (34):
Critical times of development
time in which the child can learn a skill
linguistics and vision have critical times
sensitive times of development
times when it is easiest to learn skill
begins and ends more gradually than critical times
major points for birth to 6 months
react to stimuli and interact with caregivers
check out environment
-close to age 6months will cry/whimper when held by unfamiliar ppl and develop preferences for faces
-2mo cooing noises,
-joint attention (communicate about same items or events; inant may change visual attention, engage by 6mon)
major points for 7mo to 1 year
-OBJECT PERMANENCE understand that objects still exist when not seen
-peak a boo games, point at things, speak first word, respond to name
major points 13mo-18mo
-look for objects out of site
-memory storage and retrieval advance and typically 1st word 12-13month
-vocab about 200 words by 18mo
major points 19mo-2 years
-carry out actions/plans like building blocks
-interact with other babies; pretend play
-2 or more words senstences
-learning and practicing pronounciation
major points birth to 6mo
learn to regular
sleep unpredictable until 8wks old
eating about 5-8x/day first couple months then 3-5x/day by 6mo
GASE AVERSION: infant looks away from stimuli; method to regulate
-they can become easily overwhelmed
6wks match caregiver feelings
3-4mo start laughing
-see distinguishable frustration at 6mo,
When is the first word typically spoken?
When do temperaments develop?
-between birth and 6mo
What is a highly reactive temperament?
express more negative, may be irregular sleep and eat
What is a easy temperament?
more regular, adapt well
What is a slow to warm temperament?
initially withdrawn, mildly negative reactions, eventually exhibit positively
Do temperaments stay with you until adulthood?
about 60% are same temperament when they get older
major points 7mo-1 year
-stranger wariness peaks about 1 year
-seperation anxiety NORMAL UP TO TODDLERHOOD
-SOCIAL REFERENCING: baby looks at caregiver or adult before reacting
major pionts 13mo-18mo
look in mirror
play with peers
start to develop empathy
(usually age 2 start to read caregivers and comfort)
When do attachments develop?
7mo and 1 year
What is avoidant attachment?
What is resistant attachment?
hesitant to explore while caregiver present and upset when she leaves, angry and aggressive when she returns
What is disorganized attachment?
most SEVERE FORM
confused, contradictory, dissociative, emotionally labile
major points 19mo
knows names of various behavior states
separation anxiety decreases
major points 2-5yr
SOCIODRAMATIC PLAY: imaginative friend
-make believe play more complex
-3-4 dual represenation
-private speech/talk to self outloud
major points 2-5yr
-struggle to be independent
-increase in aggression, resistance, tantrums, biting, and hitting 1-3 but this significantly declines by 4-5 yrs
-3-4yr can become calculative and goal directive anger
-empathy and sympathy start to develop
-develop friendships 3-4 yrs
-moral beliefs, recognize cultural differences/races
GENDER CONSTANCY: idea that gender cannot be changed
*ask about genetalia/show peers their privates but do not force or coerce or imitate which suggests abuse
major points 6-11 yrs
-typically able to stay on task by age 6
-8-9 focus or atleast easily redirected
-11 can finally hold sequence of steps
-have gist memory
-autonomicity (practicing new information)
-distinguish right from left by 6 yr and 7-8 distinguish right from left of others
-7 understand calendar more and "wait 5 minutes"
-11 understand double meaning of words
-6 better at phone and age 11 offer info on phone
major points 6-11 yr
-more mod regulation
-self control, delay of gratification and impulse control
-aware of gender, sterotypes and roles, gender identity
-8 learn they can experience more than 1 emotion at once
-problem focused coping (identify the issue as changeable or make note of issue, think of solutions then carry out solutions)
-emotion centered coping (work to manage or control responses through social support)
-increase ability of empahty and perspective talking (understand themselves as they understand others)
-10 yr understand views of impartial 3rd party
-moral development and normative beliefs (beliefs about appropriate behavior)
-increase focus on rules and laws
-peer victimization and bullying begin
major points 12-18 yr
-metacognition (increase attention and awareness of their own thought process)
-self consciousness (called imaginary audience; belief they are main focus of others attention); very self involved
-personal fable (result of imaginary audience; come to belief that they are focus of everyone's attention; believe they are special or unique; believe their emotions are more intense or terrible than others; "never understand"; risk for risk taking behavior)
-greater planning and problem solving
-by 18, 40,000 words usually able to read and understand adult literature
major points 12-18yr
-more aware and self conscious
-risk taking, experimental, struggle to assert ones own identity
-marked fluctuation in self esteem, regulation, identity formulation; (linked to hormonal changes; moody and leads to disagreements; 18 usually decreases)
-cliques, peer group conformity
-delinquency training (groom others to do bad things; peer pressure)
When does moral development develop?
When does empathy develop?
starts by ages 2-5
-by 2 they will comfort caregivers
-start to recognize differences with cultures and races and moral development starts
by 6-11 have increased ability of empathy
-moral development and normative beliefs (what is normal/appropriate social behavior)
When should a child be able to maintain attention?
When should a child be able to follow a sequence of steps?
By age 6 they are typically able to stay on task and 8-9 focus or atleast be easily redirected
-11 can hold a sequence of steps and have gist memory
What age should you see mood regulation?
When does self esteem start to develop?
mood begins to be more regulated by age 6-11
and they start to develop self esteem, self control and delay of gratification and impulse control
However by 12-18 can have fluctuation in self esteem and regulation as they start to create their identity and linked to hormonal changes but this decreases by 18
What age does bullying and peer victimization begin?
by about age 6-11
Secure attachment and development
mother is sensitive and responsive; assessable and cooperative
child is secure, self reliant, trusting, helpful
as adult will be able to cope w/ stress; take risks; face challenges; open up to new things; seek help; have love and stable
insecure attachment and development
ambivalent, inhibited, anxious
mother is unpredictable, may use threats of abandonment
-as infant can be fretful, anxious, clinging
-toddler do not feel secure to try new things
-children cling, anxious, overly dependent on teachers or bullied by others
-adults struggle w/ loneliness, intense roller coaster romances; fall in love easily; hypervigilant about separation; work px like procastination; difficulty concentrating; their children tend to be ambivalent and anxious attachment patterns
avoidant attachment and development
mother is angy, rejecting, rigid, hostile, adverse to physical contact; behavior threatening
-child avoids mother, does not want to be held by mother; would rather be by self; they have no distress, anger or fear, do not seek love and care from others; may be odd, or have odd behaviors like hand flapping; attachment to objects
-adults have difficulty with social situations; live with out love and support; complain of depression and somatic sx; dismissive, hostile, condescending; dissociate from loneliness, feel ashamed to approach someone for love; high rates of divorce and promiscuity