Basic Bacteriology-Sterilization, Disnfection, and Containment Flashcards Preview

Block 6 Week 4 > Basic Bacteriology-Sterilization, Disnfection, and Containment > Flashcards

Flashcards in Basic Bacteriology-Sterilization, Disnfection, and Containment Deck (58)
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1

What is this:
use of physical or chemical agent to destroy all microbial forms, including spores

sterilization

2

What is this:
use of physical or chemical agents to destroy most microbial forms; bacterial spores or other relatively resistant organisms may remain viable

Disinfection

3

What is this:
use of chemical agents on skin or other living tissue to inhibit or eliminate microbes; no sporicidal action is implied

Antisepsis

4

What is this:
a general term describing a chemical agent, usually with a broad spectrum, that inactivates microbes

biocide

5

What are the factors influencing disinfectent potency?

-concentration
-time
-pH
-temperature
-presence of extraneous materials
-microorganism

6

What is the relationship between concentration and time required to kill?

inverse correlation

7

pH can dramatically influence potency. T or F?

T

8

Kill rate (increases/decreases) with temperature

increases

9

What can extraneous materials do to disinfectants?

bind or inactive the disinfectant

10

WHat is the most resistant pathogen to antiseptics and disinfectants? What is the least resistant?

prions
Lipid enveloped viruses

11

What is the mechanism of action of the antiseptic/disinfectant Ethylene Oxide and Aldehydes?

alkylate and cross-ink macromolecules, e.g. protein, DNA, or RNA

12

What is and what kind of product is formaldehyde?

used for environmental decontamination; used in gaseous form or dissolved in water. It is an aldehyde

13

What is and what kind of product is Glutaraldehyde?

a chemical sterilizer used on equipment and it is an aldehyde

14

What is Ethylene Oxide?

a gaseous sterilization of heat sensitive materials

15

What are three oxidizing agents?

ozone
hydrogen peroxide
peracetic acid

16

What do oxidizing agents do?

they oxidize proteins; DNA breakage

17

What does ozone do?

disinfects air systems

18

What does hydrogen peroxide do?

cleanses wounds, disinfects implants, prostheses

19

What does peracetic acid do?

chemical sterilant

20

What is the mechanism of action of halogens?

Oxidizes proteins

21

What are 2 halogens?

Iodine
Chlorine

22

What does Iodine do?

skin disinfection

23

What does chlorine do?

chemical decontamination

24

What is the mechanism of action of phenolic compounds?

Disrupt lipid containing membranes; denature proteins

25

What are 2 phenolic compounds?

Chlorhexidine
Triclosan

26

What does Chlorhexidine do?

skin disinfection

27

What does Triclosan do?

antibacterial soaps; innumerable other uses

28

What is the mechanism of action of quaternary ammonium compounds?

surfactant-amphoteric properties disrupt membranes

29

What is an example of a quaternanry ammonium compound?

Benzalkonium chloride

30

What does Benzalkonium chloride do?

skin disinfection; hard surface cleaning (lysol is an example)