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What is arthrokinematics?

The motion that occurs between the articular surfaces of a joint.

1

What are the two basic structure and function joints?

Synarthrodial and diarthrodial

2

What is synarthrodial?

Connective tissue holding bony components together.

3

What are the two types of synarthrodial joints?

Fibrous and cartilaginous

4

What are the two types of fibrous joints?

Sutures-skulls
Syndesmoses-tibia/tibia

5

What are the two types of cartilaginous joints?

Symphyses-symphysis pubis
Synchondroses-first chondrosternal joint

6

What are diarthrodial joints?

Synovial joints that always contain a synovial membrane, fluid, articular cartilage and joint capsule.

7

What are the three different types of diarthrodial joints?

Uniaxial joints
Biaxial joints
Triaxial joints

8

What are the two types of uniaxial joint types?

Hinge joint-elbow
Pivot joint-proximal radioulnar

9

What are the three biaxial type joints?

Condyloid-metacarpophalangeal
Saddle-thumb carpometacarpal
Ellipsoid-radiocarpal

10

What are the two triaxial type joints?

Plane-carpometacarpal
Ball-and-socket-hip and shoulder joint

11

What are the two articular joint surface shapes?

Ovoid
Saddle(sellar)

12

What is a ovoid articular joint shape?

One surface is convex and the other concave

13

What is a saddle articular joint shape?

Each surface has one convex and concave surface

14

What are the three different types of joint motion?

Roll
Slide/glide
Spin

15

What are the three principles of movement?

For a concave-on-convex surface movement, the concave member slides in the same direction as the movement

For a convex-on-concave surface movement, the convex member slides in the opposite direction as the movement

Rolling is always in the same direction of the bone movement

16

What is the instantaneous axis of rotation?

The axis of rotation at any particular point in the motion

17

Joint motion occurs as a result of what?

A combination of rolling and gliding

18

What is joint play?

Joint laxity that allows normal sliding, spinning, and rolling to take place. Typically not under voluntary control.

19

Joint play is considered what type of motion?

Accessory motion

20

If there is not enough joint play it results in what?

Loss of ROM

21

If there is too much joint play it results in what?

Loss of stability

22

What is hypermobility?

Excess motion in a joint due to failure of the bony or soft tissue structures to prevent the motion

23

What is hypomobility?

Loss of motion in a joint due to inability of the soft tissue to elongate or the presence of a bony block

24

What do the numbers mean on a joint mobility assessment scale?

0-no motion
1-hypomobility
2-slight to moderate hypomobility
3-normal
4-slight hypermobility
5-severe hypermobility
6-instability

25

What are the two types of joint positions?

Close-packed
Open-packed

26

What is closed-packed joint position?

Joint surfaces are maximally congruent and ligament and capsule are maximally taut

Very stable and powerful

27

What is open-packed joint position?

Any position other than closed-packed
The position where joint structures are most lax and joint cavity has the greatest volume.

Swelling

28

What angle is the most open-packed position?

30 degrees to allow for the most swelling.

29

What is open chain?

The ends of the limbs are free to move
Distal mobility on proximal stability