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What is kinesiology?

Study of human movement

1

What is kinematics?

Description of motion without regard for the forces producing the motion

2

What is kinetics?

Analysis of the forces that produce motion

3

What are the two types of motion?

Rotatory(angular)
Translatory

4

What are the two types of translatory motions?

Rectilinear-straight line
Curvilinear- curved line

5

What is osteokinematic?

Direction of motion

6

What are the six different types of osteokinematic motion?

Flexion
Extension
Abduction
Adduction
Internal rotation
External rotation

7

What are the three directions of motion at the midline or spine?

Flexion/extension or forward/backward bending
Lateral flexion right or left
Rotation right or left

8

What plane and axis are flexion and extension?

Sagittal plane
Coronal/ML axis

9

What plane and axis are abduction and adduction?

Frontal plane
AP axis

10

What plane and axis are rotation movements?

Transverse/horizontal plane
Vertical axis

11

What is degrees of freedom?

Number of independent movements allowed at a joint.

12

How many DOF at the shoulder, wrist, and elbow?

Shoulder- 3
Wrist- 2
Elbow- 1

13

How is the magnitude of motion for osteokinematics measured for single series or maximum joint angle?

Degrees

14

How is the magnitude of motion for osteokinematics measured for angular velocity?

Degrees per second

15

What are musculoskeletal levers?

Parallel force systems

16

What is the axis in musculoskeletal levers?

Point where rotation occurs

17

What is the effort arm in musculoskeletal levers?

Distance between the axis and the point where the effort is applied or where the muscle attaches to the body

18

What is the resistance arm of a musculoskeletal lever?

Distance between the axis and the point where resistance is applied

19

What is a first class lever?

The axis always sits between the EA and RA

20

What are two examples of a first class lever?

See Saw
Skull on neck

21

What is a second class lever?

RA is closer to the axis than EA but on the same side

22

What are examples of a second class lever?

Wheelbarrow
Ankle plantarflexion with the met head as the COR

23

What is a third class lever?

EA is closer to the axis than RA but on the same side

24

What are examples of a third class lever?

Shovel
Biceps

25

What is mechanical advantage?

The efficacy of the lever system
M ad=EA/RA

26

What two levers have the best mechanical advantage?

First and second class levers

27

What is sacrificed in a third class lever?

Mechanical advantage

28

What is gained from a third class lever?

Maximum angular displacement

29

What are the two motor unit types?

Tonic muscles and phasic muscles