Basic Concepts in Anatomy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Basic Concepts in Anatomy Deck (67):
1

The following describes what anatomical plane:
vertical plane that divides body into anterior and posterior portions

coronal (frontal) plane

2

The following describes what anatomical plane:
vertical plane that divides into right and left portions

sagittal plane

3

The following describes what anatomical plane:
the sagittal plane that divides the body into equal right and left halves at the precise midline

median plane

4

The following describes what anatomical plane:
horizontal plane that divides into superior and inferior portions

transverse plane

5

Define the following terms of laterality:
bilateral
unilateral
ipsilateral
contralateral

bilateral: present on both sides
unilateral: present on one side only
ipsilateral: on the same side as another structure
contralateral: on the opposite side from another structure

6

Describe what happens to the angle between bones or body parts during flexion and extension

flexion: angle decreases
extension: angle increases

7

_____ is moving away from the median plane, while ____ is moving toward the median plane

abduction; adduction

8

The ______ skeletal system consists of the cranium, hyoid, vertebrae, ribs, and sternum, while the ____ skeletal system forms the limbs with their girdles

axial; appendicular

9

What is an example of a sesamoid bone?

patella (sesamoid means seed-shaped)

10

The shaft or body of the bone is called what?

diaphysis

11

What are the epiphyses of a bone?

proximal and distal ends

12

Define metaphysis

junction between diaphysis and epiphysis located either on epiphyseal line (adult bone) or epiphyseal plate (growth plate)

13

The interior of diaphysis containing bone marrow is called a ___ cavity

medullary

14

What is connective tissue covering of the external bone surface called? - tendons of muscles intermingle with this tissue to unite muscles to bones

periosteum

15

connective tissue lining the medullary cavity is called what?

endosteum

16

The ____ foramen is the opening in the diaphysis allowing the main artery and vein to pass to the medullary cavity

nutrient

17

In regards to neurovascular blood supply to bone, the ___ artery is the largest and passes through the nutrient foramen

nutrient

18

In regards to neurovascular blood supply to bone, smaller epiphyseal and metaphysical arteries arise from where?

joint supplying arteries

19

____ blood supply is crucial for bone survival

periosteum

20

True or false?
Primary innervation is different from those innervating the blood vessels (vasomotor)

false, it is the same

21

True or false?
Bone is very sensitive to pain

false, relatively insensitive

22

In regards to cartilage, avascular connective tissue is located at sites of increased ___

flexibility

23

Describe where each of the following types of cartilage are found:
hyaline
elastic
fibrocartilage

hyaline: most common and is found coating the articular surface of most bones and also forms costal cartilage and tracheal rings
elastic: forms the external ear and epiglottis
fibrocartilage: forms articular discs at various joints, intervertebral discs, and the pubic symphysis

24

Define joint

where two bones come together

25

Describe the location of the following three types of fibrous joints:
sutures
syndesomosis
gomphosis

sutures: between bones of skull, minimal amounts of fibrous tissue
syndesmosis: bones connected by a sheet of dense connective tissue
gomphosis: tooth root joined to bony socket by periodontal ligament

26

Describe the following two types of cartilaginous joints:
synchondrosis
symphysis

synchondrosis: joined by hyaline cartilage (ex: costochondral junction between ribs and costal cartilages, epiphyseal growth plates)
symphysis: joined by fibrocartilage (ex: intervertebral discs and pubic symphysis)

27

What are synovial joints?

fluid-filled joint cavity, results in increased flexibility between hyaline covered articular surfaces. All synovial joints are diarthroses.

28

Articular cartilage is mostly __ cartilage

hyaline

29

An outer layer of fibrous tissue that is continuous with the periosteum of the related bones and an inner synovial membrane which covers all except the articular cartilage is called what?

articular capsule

30

Fribrocartilaginous ___ ___ can be found within the cavity or between two cavities to improve the surface interactions or absorb forces

articular discs

31

Give an example for each mechanical classification of a synovial joint:
uniaxial
biaxial
multiaxial

uniaxial: elbow
biaxial: knuckles
multiaxial: glenohumeral joint

32

The following describes what type of shape classification of synovial joints:
two flat surfaces, allowing gliding/sliding movements

plane

33

The following describes what type of shape classification of synovial joints:
cylindrical end fits into a trough end, allowing uniaxial movements (ex: elbow)

hinge

34

The following describes what type of shape classification of synovial joints:
cylindrical end fits into a ring of bone with fibrous support tissue, allowing rotation (atlantoaxial joint for shaking head side to side)

pivot

35

The following describes what type of shape classification of synovial joints:
egg-shaped surface with a concave surface, allowing biaxial movements of flexion/extension and abduction/adduction

condyloid

36

The following describes what type of shape classification of synovial joints:
saddle-shaped convex and concave surfaces yielding biaxial movements, as condyloid joints (ex: carpometacarpal joint at base of thumb).

saddle

37

The following describes what type of shape classification of synovial joints:
a sphere in a concave socket yielding multiaxial movements (ex: shoulder and hip)

ball and socket

38

Define Hilton's Law

a joint is innervated by branches of the nerves that innervate the muscles which move the joint. These articular nerves are used in transmitting pain, proprioceptive (joint position) information, and for innervating adjacent vasculature (vasomotor function)

39

True or false?
the skin is the largest organ in the body

ture

40

Why type of epithelium makes up the epidermis?

keratinized, stratified squamous

41

The dermis is the vascular, deeper layer of the skin and is formed by what?

dense connective tissue

42

Where are high densities of skin ligaments found?

in the palms of hands, soles of feet

43

___ is a layer of connective tissue that contains varying amounts of fat and helps to surround, separate, and/or connect structures

fascia

44

Deep fascia has thickenings near joints called ____, which act as pulleys for tendons running deeply

retinacula

45

____ muscle is voluntarily controlled and striated. Produces force to move or stabilize the skeleton

skeletal

46

____ muscle is involuntarily controlled and non-striated. Found in viscera, vessels, skin, and the eyeball

smooth

47

____ muscle is involuntarily controlled and striated. Found in heart.

cardiac

48

____ are strong, dense connective tissue cords that attach muscle to bone

tendon

49

What is a fusiform muscle and what is an example?

spindle-shaped; ex: biceps brachii

50

What is a convergent muscle and what is an example?

wide, fan-shaped tendon, which converges into a single tendon; ex: pec major

51

What is a geometric muscle and what is an example?

circular (orbicularis oris), quadrangular (quadratus femoris)...etc

52

True or false?
muscles shorten to produce force

true

53

Describe isometric contractions

muscle tension increases but overall muscle length does not change

54

Describe iostonic contractions

muscle tension is greater or lesser than external forces resulting in an associated movement

55

____ contractions exist when the muscle tension is greater than the opposing forces, resulting in overall muscle shortening and subsequent skeletal movement

concentric

56

____ contractions exist when the muscle tension is less than the opposing forces, resulting in overall muscle lengthening and subsequent skeletal movement

eccentric

57

A muscle which isometrically contracts to stabilize the origin of the prime mover is a ____

fixator

58

Arteries branch while veins converge, forming ____

tributaries

59

Define each of the following functional divisions of the nervous system:
somatic
visceral
afferent/sensory
efferent/motor

somatic: derived from embryonic somites
visceral: involved with visceral organs
afferent/sensory: components bringing information into CNS
efferent/motor: components transmitting information away from the CNS

60

True or false?
The neurons has a cell body (soma), dendrites (receive information), and an axon (delivers information)

true

61

____ neurons have numerous processes on the cell body; many dendrites and one axon; ex: motor neurons

multipolar

62

____ neurons have a single appendage attached to the cell body; ex: sensory neurons

pseudounipolar

63

The support cells of the nervous system are called ___ cells

glial

64

A ___ is a collection of neuron cell bodies located outside the CNS

ganglion

65

A ___ is a collection of neuron cell bodies located inside the CNS

nucleus

66

A bundle of nerve fibers outside the CNS is known as a ___

nerve

67

A ___ unit is defined as a single motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it innervates. This is the functional unit of muscle contraction/relaxation control

motor