Triangles of the Neck 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Triangles of the Neck 2 Deck (55):
1

What nerves are found in the carotid triangle?

Glossopharyngeal IX
vagus X
accessory XI
Hypoglossal XII
Ansa Cervicalis
Transverse Cervical

2

What makes up the muscular triangle? (anterior neck)

thyroid and parathyroid glands and the hyoid bone

3

This nerve found in the carotid triangle exits though the jugular foramen and descends between IJV and ICA, deep to the styloid process and muscles attached to it. It then proceeds forwards between ECA and ICA and curves around the lateral border of stylopharyngess muscles anterior and deep to hypoglossus until it reaches the base of the tongue

Glossopharyngeal nerve IX

4

Glossopharyngeal nerve provides 3 branches. What are they?

motor: stylopharyngeus muscle
sensory: pharynx
carotid sinus

5

This nerve found in the carotid triangle exits through the jugular foramen between IX and XI cranial nerves. In the carotid sheath, it descends medial to IJV and posterior to ICA and CCA.

Vagus nerve X

6

The vagus nerve provides 4 branches in the anterior triangle. What are they?

motor to pharynx
carotid body
superior laryngeal nerve
cardiac branch

7

This nerve found in the carotid triangle exits through jugular foramen and descends medial to IJV and then travels between IJV and ICA then crosses lateral to IJV to pass downwards and backwards to disappear under sternomastoid muscle traversing the floor of the posterior triangle and then disappearing under the trapezius. It provides no branches in the anterior triangle.

Accessory Nerve XI

8

This nerve exits the cranial cavity through the hypoglossal canal. At first it lies medial to IJV and ICA and then it travels outward between IJV and ICA and then courses forwards hooking around occipital artery, crossing lateral to ICA, ECA and Lingual artery. It then goes deep to posterior belly of digastric and stylohyoid muscle and then superficial to hypoglossus and then deep to mylohyoid muscles. It provides no branches in the anterior triangle. It supplies the tongue.

hypoglossal nerve XII

9

This is a loop of nerve fibers in front of the carotid sheath. It arises form C1-3 and innervates strap muscles except thyrohyoid muscle

ansa cervicalis

10

The superior root of ansa cervicalis supplies what?

upper parts of sternohyoid and sternothryoid; superior belly of omohyoid

note: inferior root supplies lower parts of sternohyoid and sternothryoid and inferior belly of omohyoid

11

This nerve found in the carotid triangle arises from anterior rami of C2-C3. It emerges from the posterior border of sternomastoid in the posterior triangle. It then loops around it to cross its anterior surface in a transverse direction to the anterior triangle giving cautious innervation to such are of skin.

Transverse Cervical nerve

12

The thyroid gland lies in the __ compartment of the neck together with trachea, esophagus. It is covered by ____ fascia

3rd (visceral); pretraceal

13

The thyroid gland is connected to the hyoid bone by an embryological remnant made of fibromuscular band called what?

levator glandulae thryoidae

14

The isthmus of the thyroid gland lies opposite the ___ and ___ tracheal rings

2nd; 3rd

15

In regards to arterial supply to the thyroid gland, the superior thyroid artery from the ECA is accompanied by the ___ ____ nerve to the superior pole of the lateral lobes of the thyroid gland

external laryngeal

16

The superior thyroid artery branches into what?

anterior and posterior glandular branches

17

In regards to arterial supply to the thyroid gland, the inferior thyroid artery is from the thyrocervical trunk and is accompanied by the ___ ____ nerve

recurrent laryngeal

18

The inferior thyroid artery branches into what?

inferior branch: supplies inferior pole and lateral lobes; anastomoses with posterior branch of superior thyroid

ascending branch: supplies parathyroid glands

19

In regards to arterial supply to the thyroid gland, the ___ ___ artery is form the arch of aorta or brachiocephalic trunk and supplies the isthmus

thryoida ima

20

The superior thyroid vein joins IJV and cranes the area supplied by what artery?

superior thyroid artery

21

The middle thyroid vein joins IJV and drains what?

the rest of the thyroid gland

22

The inferior thyroid vein joins left innominate vein and drains what?

the isthmus

23

The thyroid gland is an endocrine gland that developed as pharyngeal floor outgrowths at the base of ___

tongue - migrates caudally to front of neck

24

The ___ ___ indicates the thyroid gland's site of origin and the ___ duct marks its way of passage during migration

foramen cecum; thyroglossal

25

The thyroglossal duct usually disappears during development but abnormal arrest of migration may leave remnants which form cysts, fistulas, or aberrant thyroid tissue anywhere through the path of migration form ___ to ___ lobe

tongue; pyramidal

26

During a thyroidectomy, which nerve needs to be considered with caution

recurrent laryngeal - found near the gland

injury causes hoarseness

27

When is a thyroidectomy needed?

Goiter or malignancies

28

During a thyroidectomy, the part of the thyroid gland in which parathyroid glands are embedded, should be left in place so as not to disturb ___ metabolism

calcium

29

During a thyroidectomy, injury of ____ trunk or nerves in the carotid sheath should be avoided

sympathetic

30

What indicates a diagnosis for ectopic thyroid tissue?

feeling midline mass and an ultrasound

31

Thyroid pathology should show thyroid function - secretion of T3 and T4 hormones. Describe what happens to the levels of these hormones in Myxedema and Grave's disease

Myxedema: atrophy of gland (decreased secretion)
Grave's disease: increased secretion

32

In regards to enlargement of the gland, ____ ____ is the most common. It presents as a diffuse mass in the neck and thyroid hormone levels are usually normal

multinodular goiter

33

Describe what happens in Hashimoto Disease

body produces antibodies against thyroid tissue

34

What artery supplies the superior and inferior parathyroid gands

Inferior thyroid artery

35

The larynx is found ___ to the hyoid. The pharynx is found ___ to the hyoid.

inferior; posterior

36

What are the boundaries of posterior triangle of the neck?
anterior:
posterior:
inferior:
apex:

anterior: sternomastoid

posterior: trapezius

inferior: middle 1/3 of clavicle

apex: occipital bone

37

The posterior triangle is divided by the inferior belly of omohyoid muscles into 2 smaller triangles. What are they?

occipital triangle, supraclavicular triangle

38

What vein pierces the roof of the posterior triangle of the neck?

external jugular vein

39

The external jugular vein is formed near the angle of the mandible by the union of the posterior branch of the ____ vein with the ____ ____ vein

retromandibular; posterior auricular

40

The external jugular vein terminates in the ___ vein

subclavian

41

The suprascapular vein, transverse cervical vein, and anterior jugular vein are all tributaries for what vein?

external jugular vein

42

For the following neck muscle, give the origin, insertion, innervation and function: sternocleidomastoid

origin: manubrium

insertion: lateral half of superior nuchal line

innervation: accessory nerve

function: tilts head toward shoulder on same side; draw head forward (both sides)

43

For the following neck muscle, give the origin, insertion, innervation and function: posterior scalene

origin: posterior tubercles of TPs of C4-C6

insertion: upper surface of 2nd rib

innervation: anterior rami of C5-C7

function: elevation of 2nd rib

44

For the following neck muscle, give the origin, insertion, innervation and function: middle scalene

origin: TPs of C2-C7

insertion: upper surface of first rib

innervation: anterior rami of C3-C7

function: elevation of first rib

45

For the following neck muscle, give the origin, insertion, innervation and function: anterior scalene

origin: anterior tubercles of the TPs of C3-C6

insertion: scalene tubercle and upper surface of first rib

innervation: anterior rami of C4-C7

function: elevation of first rib

46

For the following neck muscle, give the origin, insertion, innervation and function: omohyoid

origin: superior border of scapula medial to scapular notch

insertion: inferior border of hyoid bone

innervation: ansa cervicalis; anterior rami of C1-C3

function: depress the hyoid bone

47

For the following muscle, give the origin, insertion, innervation and function: rectus capitis anterior

origin: anterior surface of lateral part of atlas and its TPs

insertion: inferior surface of basilar part of occipital bone

innervation: branches from anterior rami of C1-C2

function: flexes head at atlanto-occipital joint

48

What causes Torticollis (twisted neck)?

difficult delivery; interfering with the profuse arterial supply within the bulk of the muscle or venous occlusion leading to muscle necrosis

49

Describe the phases of examination of toriollis:
early after delivery
few months later
late

early after delivery: neck swelling
few months later: cord-like sternomastoid
late: child unable to straighten head; head is drawn down towards affected sternomastoid and chin is towards opposite side

50

Describe the phases of examination of a whiplash injury (cervical syndrome)
immediately after
next few days
later

immediately after: intense neck pain
next few days: increased intensity of pain
later: decreased pain but increased rigidity of head

51

When palpating a whiplash energy, you should feel tenderness over TPs of ___-___

C4-C5

52

Radiographs of whiplash injuries show what?

disappearance of normal cervical lordosis with absence of any signs of fracture of cervical vertebrae

53

For the following muscle, give the origin, insertion, innervation and function: rectus capitis lateralis

origin: TPs of atlas

insertion: occipital bone

innervation: anterior rami of C1-C2

function: flexes head laterally to same side

54

For the following muscle, give the function: longus coli

flexes neck anteriorly and laterally and slight rotation to opposite side

55

For the following muscle, give the origin, insertion, innervation and function: longus capitis

origin: tendinous slip to TPs of C3-C6

insertion: occipital bone

innervation: anterior rami of C1-C3

function: flexes the head