Superficial Back Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Superficial Back > Flashcards

Flashcards in Superficial Back Deck (65):
1

True or false?
the skin of the back is of average thickness and unremarkable

true

2

Describe the superficial fascia of the back

loose network of connective tissue. varies in amounts of fat dispersed , contains superficial branches of nerves, blood vessels, and lymphatics

3

Describe the deep fascia of the back

more compact sheet dominated by collagen

4

deep fascia frequently surrounds or encases other structures, especially muscles, and is termed ___ fascia

investing

note: investing fascia is continuous with the epimysium of the muscle

5

deep fascia can also extend from the superficial fascia to skeletal features, in which case it is referred to as a ___

septum

6

in the back a portion of the deep fascia is specialized, termed the thoracolumbar fascia. describe it

an extensive sheet, extending from the sacrum and iliac crest superiorly to the neck and from the spinous processes laterally to the angle of the ribs

7

how many layers are found in the thoracolumbar fascia?

three layers of investing fascia

note: also plays role in spine stability

8

True or false?
the tendinous origins of many of the back muscles are integrated with the thoracolumbar fascia

true

9

What are the three insertion points of the superficial back muscles?

scapula, clavical, humerus

10

What is the source of innervation for the superficial back muscles

cranial and spinal nerves

11

What are the insertion points of intermediate back muscles?

ribs distal to angle

12

What is the source of innervation for the intermediate back muscles

spinal nerves, anterior rami

13

What are the insertion points for the deep muscles of the back?

vertebrae, ribs (angle and proximal)

14

What is the source of innervation for the deep muscles of the back?

spinal nerves, posterior rami

15

motor nerve cell bodies (motor neurons) are located in the ventral ___ matter of the spinal cord; their axons exit the spinal cord as the ventral rootlets, which collectively from the ___ ____

gray; ventral root

16

sensory nerve cell bodies (sensory neurons) are located in the dorsal ___ ___; their axons enter the dorsal gray matter of the spinal cord as dorsal rootlets, which collectively form the ____ ___

root ganglia; dorsal root

17

near the level of the _____ _____ the spinal nerve is formed by the combination of the ventral and dorsal roots; each of the 31 spinal nerves includes both sensory and motor axons

intervertebral foramen

18

each spinal nerve divides into a ___ ___ and ___ ___

posterior ramus; anterior ramus

19

A ___ forms when the anterior rami of multiple spinal nerves combine

plexus

20

True or false?
most of the spinal nerves in the thoracic region do not form plexi; the anterior rami of the thoracic spinal nerves form the intercostal nerves

true

21

plexi are located in the cervical, brachial, lumbar, and sacral regions. The anterior rams of T1 contributes to the ___ plexus and the anterior rams of T12 contributes to the ___ plexus

brachial; lumbar

22

nerves branching off the brachial plexus innervate some of the muscles in the superficial group of back muscles. true or false?

true

23

The cranial nerves are historically interpreted as modified spinal nerves that are associated with the ___ rather than the ____

brain; spinal cord

24

The eleventh cranial nerve is the ___ nerve

accessory

25

describe the route the accessory nerve takes

passes superiorly to enter the skull though the foramen magnum then reverses direction and exits the skull by way of the jugular foramen

26

upon exiting the jugular foramen, the accessory nerve crosses the internal jugular vein and passes into what?

hint: this portion of the neck is closely associated with the branches of the cervical plexus and is the site of administration of cervical plexus nerve blocks

posterior triangle of the neck

27

The accessory nerve pierces the ____ muscle before coursing along the deep surface of the ___ muscle.

note: it innervates both of these muscles

sternocleidomastoid; trapezius

28

Where does the accessory nerve have the highest incidence of iatrogenic injury?

between sternocleidomastoid and trapezius

29

Most of the attachments of the superficial back muscles are on the ___

scapula

30

What is the origin and insertion of the trapezius muscle?

origin: superior nuchal line, external occipital protuberance, nuchal ligament, and spinous processes of C7-T12

insertion: lateral 1/3 of the clavicle, and the acromion process and spine of scapula

31

What is the action of the trapezius?

elevation, depression, retraction, upward rotation of scapula, and extension of the neck/head

32

What innervates the trapezius?

accessory nerve is motor; anterior rami of C3-C4 are sensory

33

The ___ ___ is the largest of the superficial muscles, a broad triangular muscle with its apex on the humerus. The superior portion of this muscle is deep to the trapezius

latissimus dorsi

34

What is the origin and insertion of latissimus dorsi?

origin: spinous processes of T7-T12, ribs 9-12, thoracolumbar fascia, and iliac crest

insertion: the floor of the intertubercular sulcus on the anterior humerus

35

What innervates the lattisiums dorsi?

thoracodorsal nerve

36

What are the actions of lattisimus dorsi?

extends, adducts and medially rotates the humerus

37

This muscle is a strap muscle found deep to the trapezius. It elevates and downward rotates the scapula, and laterally flexes the neck

levator scapulae

38

What are the attachments of levator scapulae?

superiorly on the transverse process of vertebrae C1-C4. Inferiorly, onto the superior angle of the scapula

39

What innervates the levator scapulae?

dorsal scapular never

40

These two muscles are rhombus-shaped, divided into two parts, deep to the trapezius and immediately inferior to the levator scapulae. They act to retract and downward rotate the scapula

rhomboid major/minor

41

What is the origin and insertion of the rhomboid major/minor?

Origin: the nuchal and supraspinous ligaments, spinous processes of T12 to T5 (rhomboid major) and C7 to T2 (rhomboid minor)

insertion: the medial border of the scapula

42

What innervates rhomboid major/minor?

dorsal scapular nerve

43

The following is a thin sheet of muscle located deep to the rhomboids which acts to elevate the ribs 2-5 as well as providing sensory information

serratus posterior superior

44

What is the origin and insertion of serratus posterior superior?

origin: the nuchal ligament and spinous process of C7-T3

insertion: ribs 2-5

45

What innervates the serratus posterior superior?

anterior rami of spinal nerves T2-T5 (intercostal nerves)

46

The following is a thin sheet of muscle located deep to the latissimus dorsi that acts to depress the ribs 9-12 as wells as provide sensory information

serratus posterior inferior

47

What is the origin and insertion of serratus posterior inferior?

origin: spinous processes of T11-12

insertion: ribs 9-12

48

What innervates the serratus posterior inferior?

intercostal nerves and subcostal nerve

49

Cutaneous innervation of the back is via posterior rami of spinal nerves ___ to ___

C4; L3

50

____ branches of the posterior rami enter the superficial fascia near the median plane. These branches cover an area from cervical to mid-thoracic

medial

51

____ branches of the posterior rami enter the superficial fascia lateral to the thoracolumbar fascia to supply the lower thoracic & lumbar regions

lateral

52

each spinal nerve receives cutaneous sensation from a strip of skin. This coverage area is called a ____

dermatome

53

superficial back muscles receive blood supply which usually arises from branches of the ____ artery or ____ artery

subclavian; axillary

54

The ___ ___ artery is a branch off of the subclavian artery

transverse cervical

55

the transverse cervical artery has divides into a deep branch which runs deep to the levator scapulae and rhomboids along the medial border of the scapula. What is the name of this branch when it originates directly from the subclavian artery?

dorsal scapular artery

56

Where is the superficial branch of the transverse cervical artery located?

deep surface of the trapezius

57

The thoracodorsal artery is a branch off of the ___ artery; it passes through the axilla to the deep surface of the latissimus dorsi

axillary

58

The posterior intercostal arteries branch from the ___ ___ and proceed along the thoracic wall within the intercostal spaces

descending aorta

59

Give the arterial supply to each of the following back muscles:
trapezius
levator scapulae
rhomboid mm.
latissimus dorsi
serratus posterior mm.

trapezius: superficial branch of transverse cervical a.
levator scapulae: dorsal scapular a. or deep branch of transverse cervical a.
rhomboid mm.: dorsal scapular a. or deep branch of transverse cervical a.
latissimus dorsi: thoracodorsal a.
serratus posterior mm.: posterior intercostal aa.

60

skin, superficial fascia and deep back muscles receive blood from regional aa. Which aa. supply most of the posterior thorax? Which aa. supply the inferior thorax?

superior thorax: posterior intercostal aa.
inferior thorax: lumbar or gluteal aa.

61

Venous drainage of back muscles is mostly via tributaries to the intercostal veins, which are tributaries of the _____ or ____ veins.

brachiocephalic; azygous

62

Additional venous drainage is via regional veins superiorly or inferiorly which subsequently drain to the inferior ___ ___ or superior ___ ___

vena cava; vena cava

63

True or false? the triangle of auscultation is the area of the back where the thoracic wall is the thickest, providing inadequate ability to hear the lungs

false; thinnest - provides best potential to hear lungs

64

What are the borders of the triangle of auscultation?

medial: inferior margin of trapezius
inferior: superior margin of latissimus dorsi
lateral: medial border of scapula
floor: 6th and 7th ribs and the external intercostal within the 6th intercostal space

65

The dimensions of the triangle of auscultation are dependent on the position of the ___

scapula