Triangles of the Neck 3 Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Triangles of the Neck 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Triangles of the Neck 3 Deck (58):
1

The anterior boundary of the root of the neck is the superior border of (____ + ____).

manubrium + clavicle

2

The posterior boundary of the root of the neck is the superior border of (____ + ____) to the ___ process

T1 + scapula; coracoid

3

Subclavian vessels, vertebral artery, thyrocervical turnk, internal thoracic artery, and costocervical trunk are all vessels found in the root of the neck. True or false?

true

4

Irritation of the parietal pleura or parietal peritoneum covering diaphragm causes pain that is carried by the ____ nerve to the area supplied by the ____ nerves (shoulder_

phrenic; supraclavicular

5

The ___ subclavian artery arises from the brachiocephalic artery behind the sternoclavicular joint

right

6

The ___ subclavian artery arises from the arch of the aorta

left

7

The subclavian artery is divided by the anterior scalene into 3 parts. Describe the course of the 1st part.

from its origin till anterior scalene

8

The subclavian artery is divided by the anterior scalene into 3 parts. Describe the course of the 2nd part.

posterior to anterior scalene

9

The subclavian artery is divided by the anterior scalene into 3 parts. Describe the course of the 3rd part.

lateral to anterior scalene till its end at the lateral border of 1st rib

10

In regards to the subclavian artery on the right side, there are 2 nerves, 2 veins, and 2 muscles that are anterior to the 1st and 2nd parts of the artery. Name them.

2 nerves: vagus and ansa subclavia
2 veins: internal jugular vein and vertebral vein
2 muscles: sternohyoid and sternothyroid muscles

note: anterior scalene + right phrenic nerve are anterior only to the 2nd part

11

In regards to the subclavian artery on the left side, there are two structures that are anterior to the 1st part of the artery. Name them.

thoracic duct; left phrenic nerve

12

In regards to both subclavian arteries (right and left), what two structures are posterior to the 1st part of the arteries?

apex of lung and cervical pleura

13

In regards to both subclavian arteries (right and left), what two structures are posterior to the 2nd part of the arteries?

lower trunk of brachial plexus and suprapleural membrane

14

The suprapleural membrane extends from the tip of TS process of ___ to the inner border of the ___ rib

C7; 1st

note: separates the artery from pleura and lung

15

In regards to both subclavian arteries (right and left), what structure lies above the 2nd part of the arteries?

upper and middle trunks of the brachial plexus

16

In regards to both subclavian arteries (right and left), what structures lie anterior to the 3rd part of the arteries?

external jugular vein, suprascapular vessels, nerve to subclavius, insertion of anterior scalene

17

This is the first branch of the 1st part of the subclavian artery in the root of the neck. It ascends medially to anterior scalene muscles

vertebral artery

18

This artery is anterior to the vertebral artery.

hint: it is covered in the carotid sheath

common carotid artery

19

This artery crosses the vertebral artery anteriorly.

inferior thyroid artery

20

The transverse process of C7, along with the ventral rami from C7-C8 and the inferior cervical sympathetic ganglion are located ____ to the vertebral artery

posterior

21

The 1st part of the vertebral artery is between the ___ ___ and ___ ___ muscles

anterior scalene; longus coli

22

The 2nd part of the vertebral artery is located in the ___ ____ from the 6th vertebra below to the 1st above

foramina transversaria

23

The 3rd part of the vertebral artery is in the ____ triangle behind the lateral mass of the atlas

suboccipital

24

The 4th part of the vertebral artery is inside the ___ cavity

cranial

25

The vertebral artery ends by joining its fellow of the opposite side to form the ___ artery

basilar

26

This is another branch off of the 1st part of the subclavian artery. It arises close to the medial border of the anterior scalene

thyrocervical trunk

27

This is the lowest branch of the thyrocervical trunk

Suprascapular artery

28

The suprascapular artery passes laterally, crossing anterior to the ___ ___ muscle, ___ nerve, and __ part of subclavian artery

anterior scalene; phrenic; 3rd

29

At the superior border of the scapula, the suprascapular artery crosses over the ___ ___ ligament to enter the supraspinous fossa

transverse scapular

30

This is the middle branch of the thyrocervical trunk

transverse cervical artery

31

The transverse cervical artery enters and crosses the base of the ___ triangle and then courses deep to the ___ muscle

posterior; trapezius

note: divides into superficial branch (trapezius) and deep branch (rhomboids)

32

This is the superior continuation of the thyrocervical trunk. It ascends anterior to the anterior scalene muscle

inferior thyroid artery

33

The inferior thyroid curves medially between the ___ artery (posterior) and the _____ sheath (anterior)

vertebral; carotid

34

The inferior thyroid artery reaches the ___ surface of the thyroid gland to supply it

posterior

note: as it curves medially to reach thyroid, it gives ascending cervical artery which supplies prevertebral muscles and spinal cord

35

This is the 3rd branch of the 1st part of the subclavian artery in the root of the neck. It arises from its lower border of subclavian artery and descends to the thoracic cavity on both sides of the sternum.

internal thoracic artery

36

The internal thoracic artery ends by dividing into what 2 arteries?

musculophrenic artery and superior epigastric artery

37

On the left subclavian artery, the ___ ___ trunk arises form the 1st part at the medial border of the anterior scalene (instead of the 2nd part)

left costocervical

38

This is the only branch from the 2nd part of the subclavian artery on the RIGHT side. (arises from the 1st part on the left side)

costocervical trunk

39

On both sides, the costocervical trunk arches posteriorly above the apex of the ___ and ____ to reach the neck of 1st rib

lung; pleura

40

The costocervical trunk (right side) ends by dividing into what two arteries?

deep cervical artery and supreme intercostal artery

note: deep cervical artery ascends to back of neck to anastomose with descending branch of occipital artery

41

Are there any branches from the 3rd part of the subclavian artery?

Dorsal scapular artery (30% arises form transverse cervical artery of the 1st part)

42

The phrenic nerve arises from the ventral rami of ___-___

C3-C5

43

This nerve arises in the root of the neck and is a branch of the right vagus nerve as it reaches the lower edge of the 1st part of the subclavian artery, passing around it to ascend in groove between trachea and esophagus

right recurrent laryngeal

44

This nerve passes in the root of the neck. It is a branch of the left vagus nerve as it crosses the arch of aorta in the superior mediastinum

left recurrent laryngeal

note: it passes below arch of aorta to ascend beside trachea to larynx

45

The cervical sympathetic chain lies in front of the ___ ___ of cervical vertebrae and behind the ___ sheath

transverse processes; carotid

note: consists of 3 ganglia ( superior, middle and inferior )

46

Name the vascular branches to the superior ganglia (C1-C2) in the cervical sympathetic chain

internal and external carotid artery

47

Name the vascular branch to the middle ganglia (C5-C6) in the cervical sympathetic chain

inferior thyroid artery

48

Name the vascular branches to the inferior ganglia (C7-C8) in the cervical sympathetic chain

subclavian artery and vertebral artery

49

The visceral branch to the superior ganglia is the superior cardiac nerve and supplies the ___, ___, and ___

larynx; pharynx; heart

50

The visceral branch to the middle ganglia is the middle cardiac nerve and supplies the ___, ___, and ___

trachea; esophagus; and heart

51

The visceral branch to the inferior ganglia is the inferior cardiac nerve and only supplies the heart. True or false?

true

52

The ___ ganglia of the cervical sympathetic chain is connected to the inferior ganglia by a loop called nasa subclavia

middle

53

The inferior ganglia of the cervical sympathetic chain fuses with T1 ganglion to form the ___ ganglion

stellate

54

cells of origin of sympathetic fibers in the head and neck are ___ horn cells in upper 2-3 thoracic segments of spinal cord

lateral

55

This syndrome is due to 2nd order neurons. Most of the preganglionic fibers to superior cervical ganglion are derived from the T1 segment. Thus, destruction of these fibers as they pass through the trunk of the T1 nerve occurs

preganglionic Horner's syndrome

56

What are the symptoms of preganglionic Horner's syndrome? (5)

1. ptosis: drooping of upper eye lid
2. Miosis: constricted pupil
3. enopthalmos: sunken eyes
4. anhydrosis: loss of sweating
5. vasodilator skin arterioles

57

What causes central Horner's sydrome?

1st order neuron defect (lesion in the reticulospinal fibers in brain stem or spinal cord)

58

What causes postganglionic Horner's syndrome?

due to 3rd order neuron defect (lesion in the postganglionic fibers after relay in the superior cervical sympathetic ganglia)