Flashcards in Bio 108 - Lecture 14 / 15 Deck (50):
Who is Kingdom Fungi Most Closely Related to?
What is "Opishtokonta"
A clade including fungi and animals
Something that all fungi are?
What are Exoenzymes?
Enzymes that fungi secrete outside of their body
Enzymes break down which organic molecules in animals and plants?
Plants: Cellulose and Lignin
Animals: Karatin and Chitin
What are Fungi Cell Walls Made from?
Bodies of most fungi are composed of...
What is Mycelium? And What is its role?
Interwoven hyphal mat
Acts as feeding network
2 Main types of Hyphae? And Characteristics of Each
1) Septate - Have cross walls deciding cells into seperate chambers
2) Coenocytic - Lack cross walls
What ploidy are fungi spores and how are they made?
They are always 1n and they are made through mitosis and meiosis
What is Plasmogamy?
The fusion of two cytoplasms
What is a Heterkaryon?
A mycelium with two or more different genotypes of nuclei
What is a dikaryotic State?
When two genetically distinct nuclei move in together and share one hypal compartment
What is it called when two fungi nucleus fuse?
Some Features of Chytridiomycota
- Undergo alternation of generations
- Implicated in the global decline of amphibians
Some Features of Phylum Zygomycota
- Few are parasites
- Most are like Rhizopus Stolonifer (mould)
- Coenocytic Hyphae
Some Features of Phylum Glomeromycota
All species are in a symbiotic relationship with roots
- growth inside and outside roots
glom = ball of thread
Roots plus branching hyphae
Some features of Phylum Ascomycota
- sexually produced spores in sac like aci
- Have septate hyphae
- also can produce asexually
- produces 8 ascospores
What is an ascocarp?
When asci are clustered together in structures
Condia vs condiphore what is each?
Condia are the tops of hyphae that are walled off
Condiaphore are the structure that bears condia
- consist of mushrooms and toadstools
- Very important decomposers of lignin
- When environment conditions are good, it produces sexually forming basidiocarps
Rapidly Producing asexually reproducing fungi
Unicellular, inhabit moist areas
- reproduce asexually by pinching off bud
represents mutualistic symbiosis between plant roots and fungi
fungi help plants absorb minerals
A symbiotic mixture of fungal hyphae and a photosynthetic partner
- asexual reproduction through soredia
- sometimes fungi can live on its own, in which case you have the lichenized and the non-lichenized versions
What is the role of Decomposers?
to break down complex organic molecules into inorganic forms
- most fungi decompose plant matter, break down lignin
What are Fairy Rings?
Outward growth of decomposer hyphae
What are Endolithic lichens?
Lichens that grow intirely under the surface of a rock
How many plant species lack chlorophyll?
What is hypertrophy?
Something that is caused by fungi liberating plant hormones that cause excessive tissue growth
Smut Fungi vs Ergot Fungi
Ergot: replaces seed with its own fruiting body
Smut: Replaces pollen with fungal spores
What is a hypovirulent strain of fungus?
A strain that has been weakened by a virus
What is a nematode trap?
A strangling ring that fungi have to kill small organisms
What are mycoses?
What does cutaneous mean?
Infection occurs on outer layer of skin
Cutis = Skin
What is a dermatophyte?
Fungi that digest Keratin and cause cutaneous infections
What is the most common systematic mycosis in North America?
What is Thrush caused by?
The yeast candida albicans
What is the most common mushroom?
Some common foods from Fungi?
Truffles, Mushrooms, Morels, Yeast spreads, alcohol, cheese
Common fungal medications?
Yeast as a health supplement
What is the name for "Magic Mushrooms"
What is St. Anthony's Fire
A toxin that struck poor people in europe, characterized by violent convulsions, and gangrene so severe the limbs fell off
What is the most toxic mushroom?