Bio 108 - Lecture 14 / 15 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Bio 108 - Lecture 14 / 15 Deck (50):
1

Who is Kingdom Fungi Most Closely Related to?

Kingdom Animalia

2

What is "Opishtokonta"

A clade including fungi and animals

3

Opistho =

Posterior

4

Myco =

Fungus

5

Something that all fungi are?

Chemoheterotrophs

6

What are Exoenzymes?

Enzymes that fungi secrete outside of their body

7

Enzymes break down which organic molecules in animals and plants?

Plants: Cellulose and Lignin
Animals: Karatin and Chitin

8

What are Fungi Cell Walls Made from?

Chitin

9

Bodies of most fungi are composed of...

Hyphae

10

What is Mycelium? And What is its role?

Interwoven hyphal mat
Acts as feeding network

11

2 Main types of Hyphae? And Characteristics of Each

1) Septate - Have cross walls deciding cells into seperate chambers
2) Coenocytic - Lack cross walls

12

What ploidy are fungi spores and how are they made?

They are always 1n and they are made through mitosis and meiosis

13

What is Plasmogamy?

The fusion of two cytoplasms

14

What is a Heterkaryon?

A mycelium with two or more different genotypes of nuclei

15

What is a dikaryotic State?

When two genetically distinct nuclei move in together and share one hypal compartment

16

What is it called when two fungi nucleus fuse?

Karyogamy

17

Some Features of Chytridiomycota

Flagellated stages
- Undergo alternation of generations
- Implicated in the global decline of amphibians

18

Zygo =

Joined, twinned

19

Some Features of Phylum Zygomycota

- Few are parasites
- Most are like Rhizopus Stolonifer (mould)
- Coenocytic Hyphae

20

Some Features of Phylum Glomeromycota

All species are in a symbiotic relationship with roots
- growth inside and outside roots
glom = ball of thread

21

Arbuscular Endomyccorhiza

Roots plus branching hyphae

22

Some features of Phylum Ascomycota

- sexually produced spores in sac like aci
- Have septate hyphae
- also can produce asexually
- produces 8 ascospores

23

What is an ascocarp?

When asci are clustered together in structures

24

Condia vs condiphore what is each?

Condia are the tops of hyphae that are walled off
Condiaphore are the structure that bears condia

25

Phylum Basidiomycota

- consist of mushrooms and toadstools
- Very important decomposers of lignin
- When environment conditions are good, it produces sexually forming basidiocarps

26

Moulds

Rapidly Producing asexually reproducing fungi

27

Yeast

Unicellular, inhabit moist areas
- reproduce asexually by pinching off bud

28

Micorrhizae

represents mutualistic symbiosis between plant roots and fungi
fungi help plants absorb minerals

29

Lichens

A symbiotic mixture of fungal hyphae and a photosynthetic partner
- asexual reproduction through soredia
- sometimes fungi can live on its own, in which case you have the lichenized and the non-lichenized versions

30

What is the role of Decomposers?

to break down complex organic molecules into inorganic forms
- most fungi decompose plant matter, break down lignin

31

What are Fairy Rings?

Outward growth of decomposer hyphae

32

What are Endolithic lichens?

Lichens that grow intirely under the surface of a rock

33

Endo=
Lith

Within
Rock

34

How many plant species lack chlorophyll?

400

35

What is hypertrophy?

Something that is caused by fungi liberating plant hormones that cause excessive tissue growth

36

Smut Fungi vs Ergot Fungi

Ergot: replaces seed with its own fruiting body
Smut: Replaces pollen with fungal spores

37

What is a hypovirulent strain of fungus?

A strain that has been weakened by a virus

38

What is a nematode trap?

A strangling ring that fungi have to kill small organisms

39

What are mycoses?

Fungal diseases

40

What does cutaneous mean?
Cutis =

Infection occurs on outer layer of skin
Cutis = Skin

41

What is a dermatophyte?

Fungi that digest Keratin and cause cutaneous infections

42

What is the most common systematic mycosis in North America?

Histoplasmosis

43

What is Thrush caused by?

The yeast candida albicans

44

What is the most common mushroom?

Agaricus Bisporus

45

Some common foods from Fungi?

Truffles, Mushrooms, Morels, Yeast spreads, alcohol, cheese

46

Common fungal medications?

Yeast as a health supplement
Penicillin

47

What is the name for "Magic Mushrooms"

psilocybin

48

What is St. Anthony's Fire

A toxin that struck poor people in europe, characterized by violent convulsions, and gangrene so severe the limbs fell off

49

What is the most toxic mushroom?

Amanita

50

Where does St. Anthony's fire and LSD come from?

Ergot