Bio 108 - Lecture 8 Flashcards Preview

Biology 108 > Bio 108 - Lecture 8 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bio 108 - Lecture 8 Deck (28):
1

What is Mutualism?

When both parties benefit from what is taking place

2

What is competition?

When both parties do not benefit.

3

What is predation?

When one benefits and the other one dies

4

What is Parasitism?

When one benefits and one is harmed

5

What is Commensalism?

One benefits, and one is not effected

6

What is Amensalism?

One loses, one neither gains or loses

7

What is a symbiotic relationship? And what does syn=?

When members of two species live in close, often obligatory, contact with each other. Syn = Together

8

What is endosymbiosis? What does endo=?

If one species lives inside another. Endo = within

9

Two ways Eukaryotic cells differ from Prokaryotic

Eukaryotes have DNA in linear Chromosome
Have membrane bound organelles

10

How did Eukaryotes get a mitochondria?

Took on an aerobic heterotrophic prokaryote

11

Three pieces of Evidence for Endosymbiosis in the origin of Eukaryotic cells

1) The mitochondria and chloroplast have their own DNA
2) This DNA is circular, like prokaryotic DNA
3) Plastids have 2 or more cell membrane layers

12

3 Stages of Diversity for Eukaryotes

1) Metabolic Diversification
2) Greater structural diversity
3) Multicellular Bodies

13

Mitosis vs Meiosis

Mitosis - creates two 2n cells
Meiosis - creates 4 1n (gametes) cells

14

What is syngamy?

When two 1n gametes fuse to form a zygote

15

What is sex?

When two parents produce offspring with novel combinations of genes from both parents
- Requires meiosis and fusion of haploid nuclei

16

What is a protist?

Mostly unicellular eukaryotes that are not plants, animals, or fungi

17

What is Mixotrophic?

Photoautotrophic and heterotrophic

18

What are the 6 groups of protists?

1) Primitive
2) Diplomonads
3) Apicomplexans
4) Ciliates
5) Unikonts
6) Algae

19

Primitive Protists - Key features

Lack mitochondria, but mitochondrial genes are present. Mitosomes are also present.

20

What are Mitosomes?

Mitochondiral remnants

21

Diplomonads - Key features and example

Two separate nuclei. Giardia Duodenalis - beaver fever
- Also has mitosomes

22

Aplicomplexans - Key features + Example

Nearly all are parasites of animals, complex organelles for penetrating host cell. Requires 2 or most host species.
Example: Plasmodium, causes malaria

23

Ciliates - Key Features + Example

Very large and diverse group, named for the presence of cilia. usually reproduce asexually but can do conjugation sometimes
- Feed on bacteria by phagocytosis
- Paramecium is example

24

Phagocytosis, Phagos =
Cyto =

When a cell devours a whole other cell.
Phagos = to eat
Cyto = cell

25

Unikonts - Key Features + Examples

Includes amoebas

26

Plasmodial Slime molds vs Cellular Slime Molds

Plasmodial - start out with single nucleus but then undergo repeated mitosis without cell division, becomes mass of free flowing nuclei

Cellular - Start out as separate single celled, and if food becomes scare adjacent cells get together but maintin cell membranes separate

27

Algae + Key Features + Examples

- Photoautotrophs not member of kingdom plantar
- Some are single celled like Diatoms
- Some are multicellular like brown algae
- Live cycle involves alternation of generations

28

Green Algae + Key features

- Green pigments in cholorplasts
- big and small
- divided into two groups, chlorophytes and charophytes
- Charohpytes are mutlicellular and complex
Live with fungi to form lichen