Flashcards in Bio 108 - Lecture 8 Deck (28):
What is Mutualism?
When both parties benefit from what is taking place
What is competition?
When both parties do not benefit.
What is predation?
When one benefits and the other one dies
What is Parasitism?
When one benefits and one is harmed
What is Commensalism?
One benefits, and one is not effected
What is Amensalism?
One loses, one neither gains or loses
What is a symbiotic relationship? And what does syn=?
When members of two species live in close, often obligatory, contact with each other. Syn = Together
What is endosymbiosis? What does endo=?
If one species lives inside another. Endo = within
Two ways Eukaryotic cells differ from Prokaryotic
Eukaryotes have DNA in linear Chromosome
Have membrane bound organelles
How did Eukaryotes get a mitochondria?
Took on an aerobic heterotrophic prokaryote
Three pieces of Evidence for Endosymbiosis in the origin of Eukaryotic cells
1) The mitochondria and chloroplast have their own DNA
2) This DNA is circular, like prokaryotic DNA
3) Plastids have 2 or more cell membrane layers
3 Stages of Diversity for Eukaryotes
1) Metabolic Diversification
2) Greater structural diversity
3) Multicellular Bodies
Mitosis vs Meiosis
Mitosis - creates two 2n cells
Meiosis - creates 4 1n (gametes) cells
What is syngamy?
When two 1n gametes fuse to form a zygote
What is sex?
When two parents produce offspring with novel combinations of genes from both parents
- Requires meiosis and fusion of haploid nuclei
What is a protist?
Mostly unicellular eukaryotes that are not plants, animals, or fungi
What is Mixotrophic?
Photoautotrophic and heterotrophic
What are the 6 groups of protists?
Primitive Protists - Key features
Lack mitochondria, but mitochondrial genes are present. Mitosomes are also present.
What are Mitosomes?
Diplomonads - Key features and example
Two separate nuclei. Giardia Duodenalis - beaver fever
- Also has mitosomes
Aplicomplexans - Key features + Example
Nearly all are parasites of animals, complex organelles for penetrating host cell. Requires 2 or most host species.
Example: Plasmodium, causes malaria
Ciliates - Key Features + Example
Very large and diverse group, named for the presence of cilia. usually reproduce asexually but can do conjugation sometimes
- Feed on bacteria by phagocytosis
- Paramecium is example
Phagocytosis, Phagos =
When a cell devours a whole other cell.
Phagos = to eat
Cyto = cell
Unikonts - Key Features + Examples
Plasmodial Slime molds vs Cellular Slime Molds
Plasmodial - start out with single nucleus but then undergo repeated mitosis without cell division, becomes mass of free flowing nuclei
Cellular - Start out as separate single celled, and if food becomes scare adjacent cells get together but maintin cell membranes separate
Algae + Key Features + Examples
- Photoautotrophs not member of kingdom plantar
- Some are single celled like Diatoms
- Some are multicellular like brown algae
- Live cycle involves alternation of generations