Bio 108 - Lecture 16 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Bio 108 - Lecture 16 Deck (34):
1

5 Characteristics of Kingdom Animalia

1) Multicelular
2) Lack cell walls
3) Chemoheterotrophs
4) Sexual
5) Animate

2

4 Characteristics unique to Animals

1) Extracellular Collagen
2) 3 Unique types of intercellular Junction
3) Homeobox Genes
4) Hox Genes

3

3 Types of intercellular Junctions

1) Tight Junctions
2) Desmosomes
3) Gap Junctions

4

Anisogamy
An =
Iso =

- Small motile sperm, large nonmotile egg
An = Not
Iso= Same

5

What is Cleavage?

When a diploid zygote undergoes a number of mitotic cell divisions

6

What is a Blastula?
Blast = ?

A hollow ball of cells made from cleavage
Blast = Sprout, germinate

7

What is gastrulation
Gaster =

When the blastula invaginated at one end
Gaster = Stomach

8

What are the two layers of cells the Gastrula has?

Ectoderm
Endoderm
Derm = Skin

9

Direct vs Indirect Development

Direct: Embyro continues gradually on towards adult form
Indirect: Involves intervening (Larvae) stages who's morphology differs greatly from sexually mature adult step

10

The three splits in Traditional Tree

1) Split based on precedes of True Tissue
2) Split based on symmetry
3) Split based on embryonic development of bilateria

11

Animals With / Without True Tissue

Without: Sponges and Placozoans
With: Eumetazoa (all other animals)

12

Radial vs Bilateral Symmetry

Radia: Has top and bottom but no left or right
Bilateral: Has top, bottom, left and right

13

What are Bilateria?

The clade of Bilaterally Symmetrical animals

14

Characteristics of Bilateria

- Tripoblastic
- Some have hollow fluid filled body cavity
- Some have solidly packed with no body cavity (Acoelomates)

15

What are Acoelomates?
coel =

Bilaterians that are solidly packed with no body cavity
Coel = Cavity, Hollow

16

Cavity + Group

Eucoelomates
Pseudoelomate

17

Eucoelomate Characteristics

Have a body cavity that is completely lines with mesoderm ally derived tissues

18

Pseudoelomate

Animals lack complete mesodermal lining

19

3 Functions of Cavity + Group

- Cushions Internal Organs
- Allows internal organs to shift without deforming the outside body
- Fluid filled cavity can be used as hydrostatic skeleton

20

Characteristics of Protostomia

- First invagination of the gastrula becomes the mouth
- Has Spiral cleavage
- Cleavage is determinate
- Solid blocks of mesoderm split internally to create fluid filled hollows

21

Characteristics of Deuterostomia

- The second invagination becomes the mouth
- Radial Cleavage
- Cleavage is indeterminate
- Mesoderm at one end pinches off to make fluid filled hollows

22

Radial Cleavage vs Spiral Cleavage

Radial cleavage grows one on top of each other
Spiral cleavage grows in a spiral

23

Schizocoely
Schiz =

In Protos, solid blocks of mesoderm split internally to create fluid filled hollows
Schiz = Split

24

Enterocoely
Entero =

In Deuteros when mesoderm at one end of embryonic gut, the out pocketing of the mesoderm pinch off to make fluid filled hollows
Entero = Gut

25

3 Things Traditional and New Views Agree On

1) Agree sponges are sister to Eumetazoa
2) Agree Bilateria is a clade
3) Agree on distinctiveness of Deuterostomia

26

Things Traditional and New Views Disagree On

1) Constituents of and relationships among protostome phyla
2) Molecular data places some acoemlmate animals within protostomes, rather then basal to them
3) Split protostomes into two large clade, Lophotrochozoa, Ecdysozoa
4) Placement of Arthropoda

27

Annelida vs Nematoda

Annelida Old Group, with arthropods and segmented worms
Nematoda New group, with arthropods and Unsegmented worms

28

Ecdysozoa Taxa

Moult their entire cuticle at once in order to row

29

Lophophore
Loph

Tenticles
Loph = Crest

30

Choanoflagellata Characteristics
Choano =

- Common ancestor to Animalia
- Heterotrophic protists with single flagellum surrounded by a collar of microvilli
- Cell morphology very similar to sponges
Choano = Collar

31

Oldest known fossil

1.5 BYA - Eukaryotes

32

Oldest Known Animal Fossil

Trace fossil - 1.1 BYA

33

Cambrian Explosion

Most Animals appeared during this (542-525) MYA

34

Burgess Shale

Cambrian Explosion site in BC