Bio 108 - Lectures 1-7 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Bio 108 - Lectures 1-7 Deck (80):
1

Phenotype
Pheno =

Variation you can see (morphology / behaviour)Pheno = Appearance

2

Ethnotaxonomy

How different cultures classify organisms

3

Natural Selection

Through nature the most fit animals are the most common

4

Systema Naturae

Carl Linnaes book about classifying organisms

5

Nomenclature
Nomen =
Calare =

Rules about classifying organisms
Name
Call

6

Systematics

The theory of classifying organisms

7

Molecular Systematics

Using proteins, DNA, RNA to classify organisms

8

Molecular Phylogenetics

Reconstruction phylogenetic relationships by matching base pairs

9

Deductive / Hypotheticodeductive approach

Outcome predicted from generalization

10

2 Types of Sexual Selection

Intrasexual selection - Males fight for a femaleIntersexual selection - males try to look good for females

11

2 Causes of Genetic Drift

Bottleneck effect, Founder effect

12

Gene Flow

When individuals interbreed or migrate among populations

13

Gradualism

The theory that differentiation changes occur slowly over time

14

Microevolution

Evolution at the population level

15

Macroevolution

Evolution above the species level

16

5 things that cause Reproductive Isolation

1) Behavior
2) Mechanics
3) Habitat
4) Timing
5) Gametic

17

Phylogram

A visual representation of the difference between taxa, represented by branch length

18

Punctated Equilibrium

When there is a period of lots of change, followed by a period of very little change

19

Polytomy

Unresolved pattern of Divergence

20

Cladogenesis

When a species evolves into two different species

21

Five Main Factors that Alter Allele Frequency

1) Mutation
2) Natural selection
3) Genetic Drift
4) Gene Flow
5) Extinction

22

HomologyHomo=

When all character states have the same evolutionary origin= same

23

Prokaryote

Organism that does not have any membrane bound organelles, single celled. No nucleus, DNA is in nucleoid

24

Nucleid

Mass of genetic data, DNA not enclosed by membrane

25

Plasmid

Small ring of DNA containing a few extra genes

26

Horizontal vs Vertical Transfer

Horizontal Transfer is between individuals of the same generationVertical is between parents to offspring

27

Hypotonic vs Hypertonichypo = below

Hypertonic leaves the cell in hypotonic solution

28

3 Types of Archae

1) Methanoges
2) Halophiles
3) Thermophiles

29

Methanogen

Likes places with no oxygenProduces methane

30

Binary Fission

A method of asexual reproduction were the cell duplicates and then splits in half

31

Transformation

Uptake of Naked DNA released from dead bacteria

32

Conjugation

A form of sexual reproduction where one bacteria connect to the other one by a tube and genetic information is shared

33

4 Different Metabolic Types

1) Photoautotrophs
2) Chemoautotrophs
3) Photoheterotrophs
4) Chemoheterotrophs

34

Two Lineages of Prokaryotes

1) Bacteria
2) Archaea

35

HalophilesHalo =

Archaea that live in very salt rich habitatsHalo = Salt

36

Thermopiles

Archaea that live in extremely warm habitats

37

Chlamydias

Type of Bacteria that causes chlamydia, can only live inside animal cells

38

Spirochaetes + 2 Diseases it Causes

Type of bacteria that travels by moving in a spiral
Syphilis and Lymes Disease

39

Gram+ Bacteria

Largest bacteria, botox

40

Proteobacteria

Large Metabolically diverse group of gram- bacteriaCauses EcoliIncludes Rhizobium, lives in root nodules

41

Metabolsim

Chemical pathway used for living organisms to build up molecules (anabolism) or break down molecules to release energy (catabolism)

42

Gram+ vs Gram-

Gram+ Peptiglycan, abbsorbs
Gram- Polysaccharid, does not absorb

43

Cynobacteria

Only prokaryote that produces oxygen through photoautotrophy like a plant

44

Age of PlanetAge of First Fossil

4.6 BYA
3.5 BYA

45

Pansperma Hypothesis

Life came from space

46

Fossil vs Sub Fossil

Fossil: Organic Parts replaced by minerals
Sub Fossil, Still has high concentration of organic parts

47

Index Fossils

Fossils that can tell us things about other fossils (indicators)

48

Radiometric Dating

Measures the radioactive isotopes in fossils or rocks

49

Population

Localized group of individuals of the same species

50

Monophyletic

A complete group that all came from the same ancestor

51

Common Garden Experiment

Tests weather observed variation is due to heritable variation

52

Taxonomy
Taxo=
Nomos=

The practice of classifying organism
= Arrange
= Knowledge / science of

53

Maximum Likelihood

Rules about how DNA is most likely to change

54

Darwins 5 Observations about Natural Selection

1) There is variation among species
2) Species produce more offspring that can survive
3) Species are relatively stable
4) There is competition among species
5) Variation is Heritable

55

Genotype

A change in the genetic makeup that you cannot see, it is in the coding

56

Alfred Russel Wallace

Person who got darwin to publish his findings because he came to the same conclusion

57

Parsimony / Occam's Razor

Doing something in the least steps possibleusing fewest things to achieve a goal

58

Ingroup vs Outgroup

Ingroup is the taxa your are studying
the Outgroup is a related taxa that diverged a long time ago

59

Character vs State

A character is a type of structureState is the normal part of that character

60

Anagenesis

When a species diverges into one new species

61

Evolution

Descent with modification. Idea that living species came from ancestral ones that were different

62

Proximate Question

A question about mechanics not relating to evolution

63

Ultimate Question

A question about mechanics related to evolution

64

Induction

Type of logic in which generalizations are made based on a large number of specific outcomes

65

EtymologyEtmos =Logo=

The study of greek root words= True sense= Word

66

Stratigraphy

Temporal order in which fossils occurred

67

Cladogram

Branching diagram that shows the relatinoships of organisms based on derived characteristics. time is not a part of this graph

68

Senior Homyonym

Same name, different taxa

69

Senior Synonym

Different names, same taxa

70

ICZN

International Code of Zoological Nomenclature

71

Eight Taxonomic Levels

1) Domain
2) Kingdom
3) Phylum
4) Class
5) Order
6) Group
7) Family
8) Species

72

Polyphyletic
Poly =

Taxa that do not share recent ancestors
=share

73

4 Reproductive Methods of Prokaryotes

1) Conjugation
2) Transduction
3) Transformation
4) Binary Fission

74

5 Major Clades of Bacteria

1) Proteobacteria
2) Chlamydias
3) Spirochets
4) Gram+ Bacteria
5) Cynobacteria

75

Transduction

Transport of DNA between bacteria cell viruses - BacterophagesPhage = eat

76

Autamorphy

Character state found in only one taxa

77

ParaphyleticPara=

Group that does not contain all descendants of a common ancestor

78

Cladistics / Phylogenetic Systematics
Clados =
Phylo=
Gen =

Arranging organisms using their shared derived characteristics
= Branch
= Tribe or Race
= To create

79

Analogous / Homoplastic convergents

When character states appear the same but actually evolved independently

80

SynamorphySyn = Apo = Morph =

When two organisms are supported by a shared state
= Together
= Away from
= Form