Bio 141 Notes (1/28/2014) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Bio 141 Notes (1/28/2014) Deck (15):
1

Monomer

single unit

2

Hydrolisis

water breaking up something

3

polymers

most biologically active molecules

4

Carbohydrates

contain Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), and Oxygen (O)
store energy in chemical bonds
anything with suffix -ose (glucose, fructose, sucrose, lactose)

5

Hexose Sugars

commonly encountered monosaccharides

6

Pentose Sugars

components of nucleic acids (DNA/RNA) and ATP

7

Simple Sugars

Mono and Disaccharides
taste sweet and are broken down easily
(-saccharide = sugar)

8

What makes food sweet

tongue can taste food chemicals
sweetness: glucose < Sucrose < Fructose

9

Polysaccharides

long term energy storage

10

Cellulose

plant cell walls
most abundant in organic molecules in nature
resistant to being broken down

11

Lipids

long term energy storage (fats and oils)
predominantly Carbon (C) and Hydrogen (H)
Hydrophobic - non polar

12

Fatty Acids

long chains of C with H, anchored with carboxyl group
saturated - H (or C) at every possible C bond
and unsaturated
no C=C (double bonds)

13

Triglycerides

molecule type of glycerol and three fatty acids

14

Sterols

cell membrane and signaling (hormones)

15

Phospholipids

molecule with hydrophobic and hydrophilic parts

(two layers)