Test 1 Vocabulary Chapter 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test 1 Vocabulary Chapter 2 Deck (43):
1

Anabolic Reaction

a synthetic reaction where simple molecules are linked to form more complex ones
requires imput of energy

2

Atom

can't be divided further
composed of nucleus (center) - neutrons and protons(positive)
Electrons (outside) negative

3

Carbohydrate

contain Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), and Oxygen (O)\
store energy in chemical bonds
anything with suffix -ose (glucose, fructose, sucrose, lactose)

4

Catabolic Reaction

a synthetic reaction where complex molecules are broken down into simpler ones
energy is released

5

Chemical Reaction

the change in the composition or distribution of atoms of a substance with consequent alterations inproperties

6

Cohesion

water sticking to itself
surface tension

7

Condensation Reaction

forming bonds releases water

8

Covalent Bond

Share electrons

9

Disachharide

a carbohydrate made up of 2 monosaccharides

10

Electron Shell

the region surrounding the atomic nucleus at a fixed energy level where electrons orbit

11

Electron

a subatomic particle outside the nucleus
negatively charged

12

Elelment

a substance that cannot be converted to simpler substances by ordinary means

13

Fatty Acid

long chains of C with H, anchored with carboxyl group
saturated - H (or C) at every possible C bond and unsaturated
no C=C (double bonds)

14

Functional Group

A characteristic combination of atoms that contribute specific properties when attached to larger molecules

15

Glycerol

A three carbon alcohol with three hydroxl groups
component of phospholipids and triglycerides

16

Hydrogen Bond

weak electrical forces cause an attraction (like magnets) weak molecules are polar

17

Hydrolysis

breaking bonds requires water imput

18

Hydrophillic

love water
polar

19

Hydrophobic

Hate water
non polar

20

Ion

Formed when atoms borrow electrons

21

Ionic Bond

taken not shared

22

First Law of Theromodynamics

Conservation of energy; cannot be created or destroyed (can be transferred)

23

Lipid

Long term energy storage (fats and oils)
predominately Carbon (C), and Hydrogen (H)
Hydrophobic (nonpolar)

24

Macromolecule

a giant polymeric molecule

25

Metabolism

The sum of all reactions in a particular organism

26

Molecule

a chemical substance made up of two or more atoms joined by covalent bond or ionic attractions

27

Monomer

consist of one molecule unit

28

Monsaccharide

a simple sugar

29

Neutron

no charge

30

Nucleus (atom)

centrally located
in eukaryotic cells

31

Oligosaccharide

a polymer containing a small number of monosaccharides

32

Phospholipid Bilayer

hydrophillic heads
hydrophobic tails

33

Phospholipid

molecule with hydrophobic and hydrophillic parts

34

Polar Covalent Bond

electrons are drawn to one nucleus more than another

35

Polymer

simple molecules and macromolecules

36

Polysaccharide

long term energy storage

37

Product

the molecules that result from the completion of a chemical reaction

38

Proton

positive charge
determine what an atom is

39

Reactant

a chemical substance that enters into a chemical reaction with another substance

40

Saturated Fatty Acid

all the bonds between carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon chain are single bonds

41

Triglyceride

Molecule type of glycerol and three fatty acids

42

Unsaturated Fatty Acid

hydrocarbon chain contains one or more double bonds

43

Second Law of Thermodynamics

Disorder tends to increase energy transfer is inefficient
some energy escapes the heat