Protist Quiz Flashcards Preview

Bio 141 > Protist Quiz > Flashcards

Flashcards in Protist Quiz Deck (54):
1

What are protists?

a world of small, (mostly) single celled organisms
some ancestors - fungi, plants, animals

2

Why are protists important?

produce most of our oxygen and take up carbon
form the basis of all food chains
have members that have killed and continue to kill more people than anything else

3

What is one feature all protists have in common?

Eukaryotes with a nucleus and organelles

4

Since many protists have a contractile vacuole, what does that indicate about their habitat?

environments with high H2O contents

5

What are the different feeding methods protists employ?

heterotrophic - mistake in food
antotrophic - self-feeding
mixtrophics - can do both

6

Protists body forms

Asymmetrical
Bilateral
Radial

7

Three types of movement

Flagella - whiplike
Cilia - hair like
Pseudopdia - move entire body

8

What does it mean to be sessile?

can't move

9

What is endosymbiosis and how it contribute to protist diversity

relationship between organism living inside of another
ancestral, heterotrophic, single-celled organism engulfed in a cyanobacterium

10

What is a plastid?

?

11

How did plastids form?

?

12

What groups of protists have plastids

?

13

What is unique about excavates?

get their name from an excavation (feeding groove) on body surface used for feeding
appear to lack mitochondira or plastids

14

Where are excavates found?

anaerobic situations

15

How do you identify Diplomonads and Parabasalids

two equal sized nuclei, nonfunctional mitochondria, multiple flagella

16

Are Diplomonads and Parabasalids medically, ecologically or economically important?

medically - STD

17

How do you identify Euglenoza-Kinetoplastids

have a large mitochondria and a kinetoplast that contains multiple DNA molecules

18

Euglenoza-euglenids

common fresh-water organism
flagella present
mixotroph

19

Chromalveates - Alveolates

sacs called alveoli just below the plasma membrane
unicellular
photosynthetic

20

Chromalveates - Stramenopiles

one short, smooth flagllum and one loner hairy flagellum
rows of tubular hairs on the larger if the 2 flagella
some lack flagella but are descended from ancestors that have it

21

Alveolates-Ciliophora

use cilia to move and feed
have 2 nuclei, micro and macro

22

What are trichocysts

defense organelles that can explode as sharp darts

23

Alceolates-Apicomplexans

include plasmodium, the casual agent of malaria
lifecycle - transmitted by mosquito, damage to liver and red blood cells

24

Apical Complex

complex of organelles at one end of cell

25

Alveolates-Dinflagellates

mostly marine, photosynthetic, primary producers in ocean
tests of silica or cellulose
capture small organisms with extrusome

26

Red Tides

red carartenoids
release toxins that may kill millions of fish and shellfish
abundant nitrates, pollution/human waste that the dinsoflagellates feed on

27

Stranenopiles-Diatoms

unicellular
silica (glass) tests
photosynthetic - primary producers in ocean

28

Stramenopiles - Golden and Brown Alage

get names from colors of carotenoids
some are multicellular
attached forms developed holdfasts with Alginic acid to glue to rocks

29

Brown alage often called

seaweed

30

Stramenopiles - Oomycetes

can appear to have multi-nucleated cells (resembling fungi)
mainly parasite or decomposers, can impact organisms like plants if wet
Absorptive heterotophs

31

Phytophthora

Irish potato

32

Rhizaria

some ameobas, protist shtat move via pseuudophodia
some build tests,
some have photosynthetic symbionts

33

What is a significant feature of the Chlorarachniophytes?

secondary endosymbiosis - herterophic cell engulfed green algae
plastids surrounded by 4 membrabes

34

Rhizaria-Foraminifera

all are marine
red on algae and small microorganisms
snowfall of bodies builds up an ooze leading to chalk
importance in paleobiology and climatology

35

Rhizaria - Radiolarians

radical symmetry
pseudophobia generally radiate out from central body
silica rest
marine and fresh water

36

pseudopods increase ________ of cell to help stay alfloat

surface area

37

Archaeplastida

primary endosymbionts that took up cyanobacteria
other groups of protists have taken up some of these
one line of descent leads to land plants

38

Archeaplastida - Red Algae

most red color
most abundant in warm tropical waters
multicellular

39

Archeaplastida - Green Algae

green (photosynthetic pigment)
live in salt and freshwater, on land if it wet or inside another organism
larger sizes and more complex

40

unikonta

2 major groups
very hard to place organisms

41

Unikota (Amoebozans)

slime molds
gymnamoebas
entamoebas

42

Unikota (Opisthokonts)

nuclercids
Chanoflagellates

43

Amoebozans - slime molds

once thought to be a fungi
a) vegatative state-plasmodium - a mass of cytoplasm with no cell walls
b)if conditions become unfavorable
- form a hardened mass, can grow into plasmodium
- transform onto spare-bearing fruiting structures

44

Amoebozans - Gymnamoebas & Entamoebas

freshwater and marine, some terestrial
don't construct tests

45

Gymnamoebas

free living predators

46

Entramoebas

endoparasites

47

Opisthokonts

a clade consisting of organisms that have/had a posterior flagellim

48

Chanoflagellates

link cells together, sticky proteins called cadherins
sponges are most ancestral group
- lack tissues but have cells similar to chanoflagellate cells and produce cacherns

49

Nuclearids

connection to the kingdom fungi
- more closely related to single-celled protists
flagellated amoebas that feed on algae and bactera

50

Zygenma

filament
unbranched
distinctive shape
not a spiral
2 star-shaped chloroplasts in each cell

51

Closterium

unicell or colony
unicell
doesn't have a flagella
green
not round, divided into 2 halves with a nucleus in the middle
cell is elongated without a constriction in the middle (might be curved)

52

Spirogyra

filament (linear)
unbranched
distinctive shape
spiral

53

Micrasteus

unicell or colony
unicellular
no flagella
green
not round, appears to be divided in 2 halves
obvious constriction in the middle several lobes and secondary lobes

54

Secendesmus

unicell or colony
colony
nonmotile
not spherical
has 2 or 4 cells with spiines on the corners